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Part 2: Slavery Collections from the Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool




/1: 22 May 1751
Letter of instructions from the owners of the Chesterfield to William Earle, Captain, for a slaving voyage from Liverpool to Calabar (2 sheets, fragile) Transcript as follows:-

Captain W Earle

You being Commander of our snow the Chesterfield we give you the following instructions which you are to observe.

The first favourable opportunity you are to sail hence for Douglas Island there take on board from Mr Paul Bridson sundry goods as per list enclosed. From hence proceed for Old Callabar where you are to Barter our Cargoe as per invoice annexed for slaves and elephants teeth. As your cargo is large we would not have you omit any opportunity of Purchasing Teeth during your whole stay there and that you don't suffer your people to buy any unless small scraveelas [?] until you have Completed which has always been the Custom of trade in that Place, as you are experienced in the customs &c. there we need not dictate to you how to act therefore we depend on your Prudent management with Natives and Ships in the River in your Trade for our best interest should you purchase be very tedious and slaves scarce we think it advisable that you leave the river when you have got 350 slaves rather than risk your own lives by such long detention, and what goods remain lay out for Teeth of any size if possible and then proceed to Barbados and apply to Mr Sam Carter merchant there who will advise you the state of prices for slaves at the other islands from which you will Judge whether to proceed further or stop there. If you go to Antigua apply to Messrs George and Ralph Walker and Mr Andrew Lesley. If to St Kitts Messrs Guichard and Scarret, Messrs Payne and Leigh any of which will make the most in Sales give the Earliest desatch and Best remittances where you set down we recommend your agreeing for and fixing the Exchange on Bills and time the shall be remitted for the balance and if Possible all of the ships, this not being done give room for advancing the Exchange when such remittances are to be made which lessens our interest greatly.

If none of our islands offer to Incourage you calling Proceed directly from Barbados to St Eustatia and if you can obtain £17 sterling per head there with full remittance in good bills at Thirty, Forty or Sixty days sight but if any offered above Ninety days must object against them. We say if these offers are agreeably made to you, you may Embrace it. If not proceed to Jamaica, there apply to Messrs Hibbert Woodcock and Sprigg and Mr Peter Furnail either of which will take you on the Best Terms and load your ship with the islands produce provided the Prices are not so Extravagant as heretofore. In that case get a freight if possible to London or Bristol and bring your remittance in Bills of Exchange if you should stay to Windward and the produce as before mentioned. If you can't obtain freight proceed home in your Ballast. Be always on your guard against insurrections and strictly charge your people to act cautiously that no accidents happen by fire or otherwise and see that nothing be wanting that's necessary for your hands. You are to have for your Privilege five slaves, Mr Banks your mate one slave your doctor Mr Black one slave and one boy slave, pay your doctor his head money. Your coast commission £1 on 10s and pay what seamen's wages they'll take in the West Indies. In case of your Mortality (which the almighty prevent) your Mate Mr Banks is to succeed you in Command and observe these our directions and when he arrives in the West Indies that he be Entirely directed by Mr Carter of Barbados whether to stay there or proceed farther and to what place, we hope what letters we write to meet you will come in due time and may perhaps think of some other mention which we may have herein omitted, advise us at Every opportunity of your proceedings.

We wish you health, success and safe return.

Your assured friends:
W M Whaley
Robert Hallhead
John Williamson
Piers Legh
Edward Lowndes
John Clayton
William Davenport

You are to make choice of your privilege slaves in the river or when you leave Callabar.

We would have your purchase all the elephants teeth you possible can, at all events rather choose to have them depend upon even if your cargo should not purchase your full compliment of slaves but as your cargo is so large hope that will not be the case.

Yours as above.

W M Whaley
John Clayton
John Williamson

/2: 11 May 1759
Release from any further claim of the Eendragt of Saardarn in Holland against the privateer Liverpool of Liverpool on payment of the sum of £175 by her owners. Transcript as follows:-

To all to whom these Presents shall come We John Twisk, Commander of the Ship the Eendragt of Saardam in Holland and Simon and Samuel Newport of the City of Waterford in the Kingdom of Ireland Merchants Agents duly appointed by the said Captain John Twisk and the Proprietors of the said Ship the Eendragt and Hans Wallace of the said City of Waterford Merchant the Agent duly appointed by the Owners & Proprietors of the Private Ship of Warr the Liverpool of Liverpool Send Greeting Whereas the said Private Ship of Warr the Liverpool of Liverpool then commended by Captain John Ward on the seventeenth day of November last past upon the High Seas seized and took the said Ship the Eendragt in her voyage from Surrinam to Amsterdam in Holland aforesaid Laden with Raw Sugars and Coffee under colour and upon pretence that the said Ship and her Cargoe were the property of some subjects of the French King and whereas it has since appeared that the said Ship Eendragt and her Cargoe are not the property of the subjects of the French King but on the Contrary are the Property of the subjects of the States General of Holland wherefore it was agreed by and between the several partys to these presents for and on behalf of the respective Owners and Proprietors of the said Ship the Eendragt and the said Private Ship of Warr the Liverpool of Liverpool respectively that the Seizure and Capture of the said Ship the Eendragt and her cargo should be released and given up and that the suit Instituted in the High Court of Admiralty in Ireland for Condemning the said Ship and cargo as Lawfull Prize should be dismissed and the said Ship at Liberty to proceed on her said Intended Voyage and that the sum of one hundred and seventy pounds sterling should be paid by the said Hans Wallace on behalf of the said Private Ship of Warr the Liverpool of Liverpool and her Owners into the said John Twisk and Simon and Samuel Newport on behalf of the Several Owners Shippers and Laders and all others Concerned in the said Ship the Eendragt and her Cargoe in full satisfaction and recompence for all Losser Costs Expenses Damages and Detriments whatsoever which they or either of them have suffered or sustained by the bringing up seizing and taking the said Ship the Eendragt or any way relating to or concerning the same Now these Present Witness that the said Hans Wallace for an on behalf of the said Captain John Ward the Commader and the several Owners and Proprietors of the said Private Ship of Warr the Liverpool of Liverpool for and in Consideration of the premises Doth by these presents for them and each and every of them their and each and every of their Executors Admirals and Assignees remise release discharge Acquit and for ever quit claim Unto the said Captain John Twisk the said Ship the Eendragt and all and every port of the Lading Goods and Commodities on board her at the time of her seizure or at any time since and do hereby disclaim any further challenge or demand to the said Ship her Cargoe her Owner her Crew and all and every person any way concerned or Interested in the said Ship or her Cargoe in any wise howsoevery and the said Captain John Twisk for himself and the said John Twisk Simon and Samuel Newport for and on behalf of the several Owners and Proprietors of the said Ship the Eendragt and also for and on behalf of the several Owners Proprietors Shippers and Laders of all and singular the Cargo on board the said Ship and for and on behalf of all and every person any way concerned or Interested in the said Ship and her Cargo Do and each of them doth by these presents for and inconsideration of the sum of one hundred and seventy pounds sterling to them in hand paid by the said Hans Wallace at and before the Ensealing and delivery of these presents the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged Remise Release discharge Acquit and for ever Quit Claim unto the said Captain John Ward and every of the Crew and also the Owners Proprietors and every person any way Interested or Concerned in the said Private Ship of Warr the Liverpool of Liverpool their and each of their Heirs Executors and Administrators of and from all and all Manner of Action and Actions Cause and Causes of Action Suits debts dues sum and sums of money Accounts reckonings Controversys Variances, Damages, Costs, Losses Expenses or Demands whatsoever in law or Equity which against the said Captain John Ward the said Private Ship of Warr the Liverpool of Liverpool her owners or Crew they ever had now have or which they or either of them their or either of their Executors or Administrators hereafter can shall or may have for upon or by reason of the seizing taking bringing up or bring into Port and Detaining the said Ship the Eendragt or for upon or by reason or any matter Course or thing Touching or Concerning the said Ship her Cargoe or any other matter from the beginning of the World to the day of the date of these presents and the said several partys do by these presents Mutually and Reciprocally bind themselves their and each and every of their Heirs Executors and Administrators each to the other in the penal sum of One Thousand Pounds sterling the true performance of these presents In witness where of the said partys have here unto put their hands and affixed their seals this Eleventh day of May one thousand seven hundred and fifty nine.

Hans Wallace (Seal)
Signed Sealed & Delivered John Twisk (Seal)
In Presence of Us
Simon Newport (Seal)
Robert Snow
Samuel Newport (Seal)
Stephen Downes
Nat. Pub

Received from Mr Hans Wallace the sum of One Hundred and Seventy Pounds Sterling being the Consideration above mentioned two receipts given

Robert Snow
Stephen Downes
Sim & Sam Newport

/3: 1769
List of crew and passengers of the ship Speedwell, Isaac Strickland Master, from Liverpool to Philadelphia, Newfoundland and from hence to Italy [Insect damaged].

/4: 23 July 1769 - 21 May 1771
Log of the Unity of Liverpool on a slaving voyage to Holland, Africa and Jamaica, Robert Norris, Captain. Entry for 6 June 1770 - "the slaves made an insurrection which was soon quelled with ye loss of two women"

/5: 16 Sept 1779
Letter of instructions to James Hasslam, Captain of the privateer Enterprise, from Messrs. Ingram & Co.
Transcript as follows:-

Captain James Hasslam

Sir, you being appointed Commander of our Ship Enterprise and being completely fitted for a cruise of 6 months are by the first opportunity to sail from hence and make the best of your way to sea, by the North or South Channel as the wind may offer most favourable, but we prefer the former, if to be effected without any extraordinary wish as being a path less liable to meet with the Enemys Cruisers, and having a chance to meet with American vessels, bound to Sweden [?] in this care, don't keep too near the Coast of Ireland and be sure to gain the Longitude of 20 West from London, before you go to the Southward of the Latitude of 53, but should you go through the South Channel on true W.S.W course 180 or 200 Leagues from Turkey would be the most likely to lead you clear and obtain the Longitude of 20 as aforesaid, by the time you would get into Latitude 48, in either case, when the westing is gained you are to cross the Latitude under an easy sail to the Island of St Marys, then to cruise about 5 degress to the Westward of it now and then switching [?] half a degree to the Southward, as vessels may run in that path to suit, and yet avoid coming too near for fear of being Captured. If in the course of 3 weeks you meet with no success you are to proceed to the Westward of Cape Cove [?] and stand averse [?] from North to South from half a degree to the Northwest of Cove to half a degree to the Southward of St Marys, the whole of your Cruise in these stations are limit to three month from the tme of your being the length of St Marys, unless some extraordinary intelligence may be had in which case it is left to your discretions hoping at all times you will weigh every circumstance maturely for and against aided by the sentiments of such of your officers as may be depended upon.

Should you be so fortunate as to take any prize or prizes on those stations of the value of Ten thousand pounds, or upwards you are to see them safe into some good ports in Ireland, running down in the Latitude of 52 gaining that parallel in Longitude of 15 West from London at least, then taking the North and South Channel as winds and weather may offer but if not of that value dispatch them with a trusty officer taking care not to put too many of he Enemy in purporting to your own men on board - giving the directions for his proceedings as aforesaid - with caution not to trust many of his own people aloft at a time on any account whatever, as many prizes have been retaken by the prisoners for want of such precaution.

Should you meet with no success you are to proceed to the Latitude of Ushant coming no farther to the Eastward than 16 West from London and cruise between that station and Cove, and should you have no success in a reasonable time, finish your cruise between the Latitude of 37 and 40½ taking care as you increase your Latitude to make Easting in proportion, and on the contrary as you make Southing to increase your Westing, either to the Eastward or Westward of the Western Islands, likewise as may be thought most eligible and should you take any prize or prizes of the aforesaid value you are to act accordingly and take or send them for the North or South Channels as Circumstances may alter, and should you lose Endorsement on page 1.

To Hoist a White Flagg at the Maintop Gallantmost head - which Richard Willding will answer on his own pole to the Southward of the Lighthouse.

Captain Hasslam
On your coming in for a prize you are to make the above signall.
F I & Co

/6: 28 May 1779
Articles for fitting out of the privateer Mars of Liverpool "against the enemies of Great Britain" with 12 carriage guns, small arms, etc. for a voyage to Sierra Leone, Africa [rodent damage].

/7 a): 2 Feb 1781
Crew List and Agreement for the fitting out for a cruise of five months of the ship Harlequin of Liverpool, owned by Messrs Earle & Sons. Joseph Fayrer, Captain.

b): Letter from Robert Carr, aboard the Harlequin, to Mrs Susannah Barkley, No. 9 Hand Street, Liverpool,
requesting her to send to Mr Earle for the 9 shillings owed to him. Mentions that he is at present taking a prize into Cork.

c): 26 Sept 1781
Release of the Harlequin from arrest.

/1: 1667-1738
Volumes of copies of deeds and documents relating to property and slaves in Jamaica belonging to Mr J Knight of Jamaica (includes lists of slaves and details of their employment) (pp 161) [Fragile]. Possibly the Earles were his executor.

/2: 23 Jan 1760 -23 Sept 1761
Letterbook of William Earle of the Brick House, West Derby. Includes references to cargoes of slaves, ivory, fish and brandy, on vessels employed on the triangular route from Liverpool to Africa and America. There is also a letter to an African prince, Duke Abashy, re: the capture of his sons as slaves in February 1761.

/3: 8 Dec 1801 -30 Oct 1808
Letterbook entitled "Livorno" containing correspondence of Thomas & William Earle re: Leghorn trade, etc. One letter (11 Sept 1803) describes how the house of Earle & Co. of Leghorn was wound up, and another gives an account of Thomas Earle's death, 5 February 1806. Includes details of shipments of earthenware consigned to Jos. Wedgwood and Bryerley in 1796 and 1799 (letter dated 16 Dec 1801) (pp.206) [Fragile].

D/EARLE/3/1-6: 1751-1852
William and Thomas Earle were involved in a trading partnership in Leghorn, Italy with the Hodgson family. The bulk of the correspondence relates to their partner, Joseph Denham. There is also correspondence between William's sons Thomas (1754-1827) and William (1760-1839) who operated as T & W Earle & Company.

3/1: 30 Aug 1751
Letter to Mrs Anne Winstanley, Liverpool from Captain William Earle: on a slaving voyage to Old Calabar
[see also D/Earle/1/1: Captain Earle's Letter of Instructions, for the voyage].

He wrote previously when bound for Cork, and went windward, where he saw Captain Maddox. He arrived in Calabar three days before Captain Maddox. Captain Thomson of Marsden & Snape of Bristol, was seen in the river. The trade is "sluggish" but he is healthy and has obtained slaves in excess of his expectations. He describes the natives as "saucy" and "insolent", and would need no encouragement to return there [Fragile and Damaged].

3/2/1-32: 1763-1781
Letters to Mr & Mrs Thomas Earle from Joseph Denham, Italy

/1: 10 Aug 1763
Letter to Mrs Thomas Earle, Livorno from Joseph Denham, Genoa: Thanking her for her venison pastry.
He chides Mrs Earle for not informing him of her pregnancy. On Monday he dined aboard an English ship with the Consul, and they drank to Mr & Mrs Earle's health. Denham is studying Italian, but has problems with the Genoese accent. In a message addressed to Mr Earle, he thanks them both for their invitation to spend time with the family. He hopes to be of service to Mr Earle in Genoa

/2: 30 Nov 1763
Letter to Mrs J Earle (address not known) from J Denham, Genoa. Apologies for not writing for so long
due to pressures of work. The Duke of York has arrived in Genoa, and this evening there will be a ball and
masquerade at the Doric Palace in Strada. Denham will be attending and promises a full account in his next letter. The Duke's itinerary is described. Ends with compliments to Mr Earle and Mr Hodgson.

/3: 9 Dec 1763
Letter to Mrs J Earle, Leghorn [?] from J Denham, Genoa. Acknowledges receipt of her letter of 7 November and complains about the Italian post. Discusses the Masquerade Ball and also a second one held at a theatre. Further details of the Duke of York's visit. The Duke has given the Commodore £500 to fit out the Commodore's houses at Mahon and Genoa. The Duke has hopes of commanding the Mediterranean Fleet in the event of war. The Duke of York received a letter from the Duke of Algiers who, on hearing of the Duke's arrival in the area, will release two English slaves. Refers to a captain who was recently plundered by the Algerians. Further details of the Duke's visit, including his entertaining aboard the Centaur. Denham expresses his disappointment that the Duke will not be visiting Mr & Mrs Earle. [2pp].

/4: 29 Dec 1763
Letter to Mrs J Earle, Livorno from J Denham, Genoa: Further details of the Duke of York's visit. On
Christmas Day, the Duke of York went aboard his ship for morning prayers. On the Monday he attended a comedy and on Tuesday night he went to the opera and ball. The Duke has visited the Figlia sisters who live opposite the writer. The last visit at noon caused an uproar in the street, due to these ladies being unchaperoned. The Commodore and his secretary visit daily causing great gossip - but their mother deems it a great honour to be visited by the Duke of York. The squadron was due to sail on the 29th but was delayed by bad weather and will sail on the first good wind but the Duke will remain in Genoa to await the squadron's return.

/5: 18 Feb 1764
Letter to Mrs Earle (address not known) from J Denham, Genoa: Denham congratulates Mrs Earle on having a baby girl. The Duke of York has left Genoa and has written (with his own hand) to Lady Durrazzo. General pleasantries given. In the postscript it is mentioned that Mr Hardman's black boy, "Jupiter", has been made a Catholic by Father Giammone.

/6: 2 June 1764
Letter to Mrs Earle (address not known) from J Denham, Genoa: Apologies for his delay in replying to
her letter, due to pressure of business. He is pleased to hear the baby is well. The Duke of York has been to Livorno, and is now in Venice and is expected back in Genoa in 15 or 16 days time. He bemoans the lack of good company in Genoa. Mentions his translation of Tasso's Aminta which has been sent to a mutual friend, and hopes that it will be shown to her. Describes the Consul's new house at Sanpierre 'arcna. He has been invited to dine, but he has had to decline due to prior engagements.

/7: 7 July 1764
Letter to Mrs J Earle (address not known) from J Denham, Genoa: Thanks given to Mrs Earle for kindness
and information about Mrs Lawrence's children to be placed with Mrs Ellis. Duke of York is expected in Genoa from Padua on the 20th. Sends best regards from Mr & Mrs Lawrence. Mentions that he is strictly forbidden to write to Mr Earle.

/8: 4 Aug 1764
Letter to Mrs J Earle, Livorno from Mr J Denham, Genoa: Domestic matters concerning the intended visit
of Mrs Lawrence to Mrs Earle and the problems arising. Mentions bathing as an attempt to counteract the heat and how copper baths are hired out by the locals. Mentions Mrs Lawrence's children and various kindness' shown. The Duke of York's itinerary is again mentioned, and the masques and balls to be held for his entertainment. He went to Mrs Lawrence's home. He entertained her and her sister and had a 3 course meal of 20 dishes each.

/9: 16 Oct 1764
Letter to Mrs J Earle (address unknown) from Mr J Denham, Genoa: Letter contains pleasantries and
a mild criticism of her style of spelling and English. Discussed various topics including venison, and Mr Dance's plans to go to the Antibes by a Felucca. Denham's family has gone to the country. Writes about his translation of Tasso's and finishes the letter with his translation.

/10: 17 Nov 1764
Letter to Mrs Earle, Leghorn from J Denham, Genoa: Opens with his methods of passing time viz counting the bricks on the floor, etc., as well as reading the Book of Lamentations. Therefore he has decided to write to Mrs Earle. He wants to see her and will go to visit her soon. Advises her to read the best authors such as Addison and Swift - and she is to practice daily at writing. Discusses philosophy and apologises for writing a "stupid" letter.

/11: 21 Nov 1764
Letter to Mrs Earle (address not known) from J Denham, Genoa: A further commentary on her writing
in English and Italian translation. Discusses her writing style, and how she hangs venison so well it should be in the next edition of Mrs Bradley's "Art of Cookery"! Jocular writings concerning their relationship. He (Denham) is to be appointed Commander-in-Chief of a Corps for the Carnival!

/12: 22 Nov 1764
A manuscript called "The Trial of Riches - A Vision" written by J Denham, Genoa for Mrs Earle's perusal:
Wishes for her comments and ideas for a possible title.

/13: 8 Dec 1764
Letter to Mr J Earle, Livorno from J Denham, Genoa: Acknowledges Earle's previous letter. Mentions business matters with regard to Mr Crisp and of Earle's acceptance of Crisp's proposal relating to their account. Confirms the loss of 3 ships off Minorca, one being a Dutchman from Lisbon, the captain and 8 men were saved, the rest is not known. Mentions the belief that the Consul's house is haunted and writes at length on the happenings.

/14: 15 Dec 1764
Letter to Mr Thomas Earle, Livorno from J Denham, Genoa: Thanks given to Mr & Mrs Earle for their letters.
Remarks that Earle's business with Crisp is completed satisfactorily without a lawsuit. Expresses a wish that the Deal Castle had sailed. The Consul is convinced that his house is haunted, describing the incidents in detail.

/15: 16 Dec 1764
Letter to Mrs Earle, Livorno from Joseph Denham, Genoa: Pleasantries acknowledged and returned. Bemoans the decline of Sunday and denies the modern trend of not honouring Sunday and discusses the art of lying and her reluctance to meet him.

/16: 10 July 1765
Letter to Mrs Thomas Earle, Genoa from J Denham, Leghorn: Glad to hear Mrs Earle has arrived safely at
Genoa, but is sympathetic towards her sickness. Is surprised at the length of her voyage considering the favourable wind.

/17: 17 July 1765
Letter to Mrs Earle (address unknown) from J Denham, Leghorn: Domestic and social matters mentioned, dinner guests, etc.

/18: 24 July 1765
Letter to Mrs Earle, Genoa from J Denham, Leghorn re: personal matters, including Mr Earle's relationship with Mrs Brooke and Mrs Earle's forthcoming visits to Rome and Florence with Mr & Mrs Lawrence in September.

/19: 31 July 1765
Letter to Mrs Earle, Genoa from J Denham, Leghorn: Informing her of his joy at hearing that Mr Earle is returning to Leghorn and of the Gleeming's arrival at Manfredonica, and contact is to be made at Valencia for an order. Solomon is coming to Villa Franca with a cargo of salt and he will be advised if he is to sell there or at Genoa. Requests Mr Earle to discuss the "problem" with Mr Crisp, with him. Discusses the price of timber and the state of trade in Gibraltar.

/20: 9 Oct 1765
Letter to Mr Earle, Sambra from J Denham, Leghorn re: personal matters. Mentions that the Commodore has returned with the Prince of Mecklenburg. The Deal Castle has arrived at Genoa with Mr Lawrence on board and there are four ships in harbour.

/21: 3 Oct 1766
Letter to Mrs Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Leghorn: Congratulations on her return to Britain after many years abroad. Joseph hopes that she will describe the country in further letters. Describes how Mrs Earle's
return has affected various people in Italy. Wishes to know what happened to Pietro Francisco Chiaffe, who went to live with Mr Bolton of Liverpool.

/22: 13 Apr 1767
Letter to Mrs Earle (address unknown) from J Denham, Leghorn: Pleasantries and hopes Mrs Earle has
settled in England. Admonishes her for her long time in writing. Discusses how Mr Earle has taken new hobbies, e.g. horse riding and gardening. G Lloyd is in Italy and has gone to Pisa with the writer to see the sights. Mentions the social life in Italy and the dances he's had with various ladies, and people who have returned to England. It was alleged that Mr Hodgson had a 'turn' that meant he had to be tied to his bed after breaking and throwing crockery, but it was the cook getting rid of the old plates, etc. Describes in some detail an earthquake in January 1767 at 7.30 in the morning. Describes what happened and his fear, and finding Mr Hodgson, Captain Draper and Mr Baldwin. In Genoa the shock was worse, and he describes the damage.

/23: 9 Aug 1767
Letter to Mrs Earle (address unknown) from J Denham, Leghorn: Mentions he failed to date the previous letter and it was written on 13 April 1767. General pleasantries and news of acquaintances, etc.

/24: 1 Feb 1768
Letter to Mrs Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Leghorn: Opening pleasantries, mentions her house in Liverpool, etc. It is carnival time in Leghorn - the reason being the expected baby of the Grand Duchess, and the celebrations being prepared if it is a boy. Talks about his social life of balls, who danced with whom, and the condition of individual exiles, mentions death of Captain Sark. Captain Morrison is to bring a present aboard the Diana and describes the cargo.

/25: 2 May 1768
Letter to Mrs Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Leghorn: Mentions receipt of her previous letter sent via Captain Byrne. Pleasantries offered and pleased that she is happy, despite the terrible cold of England.
Complains about her not writing and why he had been loathe to do likewise. Her requests for Barbary Fowls dealt with, but there are problems of scarcity. Complains about receiving no letters from Mr Earle, and declares an interest to work elsewhere.

/26: 30 May 1768
Letter to Mrs Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Leghorn: Discusses differences in the information given previously re: crop failures to Mr Earle. He wants Mrs Earle to explain this to her husband, and that he should be informed that Denham has been misrepresented by Mr Hodgson. Discusses the lack of rain and the problems of the crop, the prices being low and the Prince importing large quantities from abroad.
Mentions past acquaintances of Mrs Earle, as well as inquiring on how his presents were received. Describes Mrs Oliver's sea journey to Italy.

/27: 24 July 1768- 27 July 1768
Letter to Mrs Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Leghorn: Informing her that the scheme in Italy will soon be completed and Denham hopes to return to Liverpool. He describes some of the provisions of the Treaty for the Cessation of Corsica to the French. Commodore Spry is in port with the Jersey, Man of War and the frigate Aquilion. [Letter now dated 27 July 1768] Pleasantries, gossip about mutual acquaintances and domestic problems. [9 pp].

/28: 19 Oct 1772
Letter to Mrs Mary Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Civita Veccia: Apologies for the length of time since last
writing. Asks about Mrs Earle's 2 daughters and their accomplishments. Mr Porter who is on his way to England, has reported problems between Mr Earle and S White, a merchant, who refused to do business with Earle's house.

/29: 16 Apr 1774
Letter to Mrs Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, CVa.. Refers to his regard for Mrs Earle as the "fluttering anxiety of a man running numbers of the lottery". Describes the visit of the Duke of Cumberland and his lack of manners. The Pope has provided a frigate for the Duke and his wife to go to Toulon. Denham has previously been in Rome for the ceremonies. Mentions various English people seen and how they are.
Describes how his tenants are pleased with him. In passing, writes about a new palace that will pay host to Mr Jenkin, a great free-thinker. Mentions personal matters with regard to Mrs Earle, and asks about the family, especially her 2 daughters. Compares them with his family and his relations with the Pope.

/30: 1 Dec 1779
Letter to Mrs Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Rome: Recovering from sickness. Writes of his feelings, and how the house is larger than in England. Mentions that in October 1779 a thunderbolt hit the Magazine of the Palace at Civita Vecchia, causing a terrific explosion with great damage and killing four women. Requests Mrs Earle to remind Mr Earle of the benefits of a business plan devised by Denham. Mentions various developments that would prove beneficial to Mr Earle relating to insurance and the Jamaica trade. [Fragile, last part missing].

/31: 4 Dec 1780
Letter to Thomas Earle, Liverpool from Joseph Denham, Civita Vecchia, re: the death of his "dearest friend" (possibly his estranged wife, Sukey Denham). Requesting Earle to burn all his letters to her and to look after her affairs and maidservant.

/32: 25 Aug 1781
Letter to Mrs Mary Earle, Liverpool from J Denham, Rome: Mentions his new enterprise with Mr Venture of
London and describes his new premises in Rome. Gives commiserations to a dear late friend (Thomas Earle?) and hopes to retain her friendship and that she would come to Italy in the future. The house at Livorno is to be altered, and gives his opinion re: the details. Asks Mrs Earle to destroy all letters written by him to Mr Earle, as they can be of no use to anyone else. Gives his compliments to her family and he has drawn a small bill on her nephew. Writes of the expected attack by the Spaniards on Mahon, and that a convoy of troops with two warships have set sail from Cadiz on the 23 July. It is thought that the place is well defended and that General Murray is thought to be an able man.

3/3/1-16 Letters to Mrs Sukey Denham from her husband, Joseph Denham; 1762-1775
Denham became a business partner of the Earles' in Leghorn, Italy, in 1768. The letters include details of their married relationship and his partnership with Earle and Hodgson.

/1: 6 Mar 1762
Letter to Sukey Denham at the Duchess of Beaufort's, Badminton, near Bristol from C B Denham, Norris's Coffee House, Dublin: Denham has received a letter from his uncle listing the leases of estates. His uncle will not pay Denham's bill until better security is obtained. Instructions are given to his wife to rectify this, and if this fails, he could face imprisonment and would not be able to obtain a commission. He pleads for her not to leave Badminton until she has heard from him, and scorns her idea of going to Italy. He denies knowing an English women in Ireland, and declares that there is no way he can accommodate his wife in Ireland as yet. [2 Sheets, Fragile and Torn]. [N B. Denham's initials "C B" refer to his original Christian names, due to a "Passport error" it was altered to Joseph]

/2: 6 Apr 1762
Letter to Sukey Denham, Bath from C B Denham, Cork, Ireland: The writer has a commission in Lord Blaney's Regiment, awaiting embarkation to Portugal, but doubts if they will go as they have remained at Cork for a fortnight. Pleads to wife to write as she has not written to him. Gives his address as Ensign Denham, Lord Blaney's Regiment, Cork. Complains about the cost of being fitted out, and the inconvenience of living on 1/6d (half pay) per day. Wishes he could support his wife better but he can barely manage himself. If he was on full pay he would insist on his wife coming over as she could easily get a ship from Bristol to Cork almost daily and they could live easily enough on 3/8d per day. [Fragile]

/3: 17 Apr 1762
Letter to his wife (address not known) from C B Denham, Union Transport, Cove Harbour, Cork: Informs his wife that he has embarked for Lisbon, and is at sea awaiting the wind to sail. Requests his wife to write to him c/o Lord Blaney's Regiment, the English Army, Portugal, but she must pay the postage as he will not receive them, advises that her sister should do the same.

/4: 12 Jul ? 1763
Letter to his wife from J Denham, Italy: Hopes his wife has found means of subsistence. Declares his love
for her and hopes that his feelings are reciprocated. He has settled in Italy and would like her to join him. Lady Northampton died recently in Naples, and my Lord Northampton is grievously ill with consumption in Geneva. He has been with Lord Gordon and the Duke of Gordon recently for a few days. Explains why he left the army because the war would not last long and he would have to return to England, with no prospects. He has been appointed by the King of Portugal to a position and sent to Italy, France and Spain.
He begs Sukey not to tell anyone that she has heard from him, and to address correspondence to the General Post Office, London. [Fragile and badly torn]

/5: 29 Oct 1763
Letter from J Denham, Genoa: He is upset that 'Sukey' needs "bread!" and a bill will be sent to pay her £10, and the method of drawing on it, as well as endorsing, will be given. Gives a full explanation of how he is financed and mentions various friends who forward him money, e.g. Mr Samuel Crisp of Barcelona. Crisp's brother is in London (John Crisp) and will offer Denham a salary of £1000 p.a., and hopes to establish a house in Valencia. He cannot come to England as his debtors are awaiting him. Hopes to place his wife in a good English house in Leghorn (Mr Earle's). Praises Earle's wife, who writes to him, and has spent 6 weeks at their home. Mrs Earle would make a good companion for his wife. He is at present working for Mr Joseph Browne, the only English merchant in Genoa.

/6: 26 Nov 1767?
Letter to Lord Northampton, Ambassador, Venice from B Denham, Genoa: Enquiring if his wife is in the Lord's or Lady's Service at Venice, as possibly a domestic. Denham has business in Genoa, after arriving from Lisbon, to which he has to return, and would like to know from the Ambassador the whereabouts of his wife. States that his wife worked for the Duchess of Beaufort in a similar capacity from September 1763 to February [?].

/7: 14 Dec 1767
Letter to Sukey, Leicester Fields, London from J Denham, Leghorn: Declares that he has not received a line from Sukey since January 1767 (?). If she has written, these were not forwarded on to him, because of the Act of Parliament prohibiting the Post Office to frank letters at that time. After such silence, Denham thought that he had lost Sukey. He asserts his feelings towards her, and hopes to see her again, and writes that his feelings towards her have never extinguished. He remains convinced of her virtue and honour, and asks her to forgive him his wrong doings. States that he has been in Leghorn for 3 years at the invitation of Thomas Earle, by whom he is employed. Mr Earle and his wife are now in Liverpool visiting relations, and it is thought that they will hardly be seen again. Earle's partners are Thomas Hodgson, now in Liverpool, and his brother Robert Hodgson. The latter is with Denham in Leghorn. They manage all the business in Leghorn, the firm is called EARLE and HODGSONS. They have an agent and house to themselves, along with 2 servants, cook and footman. He earns £40 per year; there is little other than clothes to spend it on. He hopes to be a partner one day and thus would be able to provide for Sukey. He will provide her with £20, as it is his duty, and she should not feel any remorse at any hardship he is under. Denham is to economise by no longer subscribing to the Opera, or having a box at the theatre. Mentions Captain John Disling of the ship Jupiter, and that Mr Dance has "done" his picture. [Fragile and Torn]

/8: 25 Apr 1768
Letter to Sukey Denham, address as previous from Mr J Denham, Leghorn: Mentions that he wrote before
on 12th and 29th February and enclosed receipts for box and chest sent to Sukey via the St George with Captain Willis Machell, and he hopes that these articles are safely in her hands. He is awaiting confirmation of their safe arrival. Mr Earle has not written also. He has written to Earle again (12th March) and is awaiting a reply. Attributes the delay to the elections in England and accuses the politicians of corrupting public morals, and the whole country of being drunk instead of minding the public good. He also accuses the politicians of neglecting the Mediterranean trade and allowing France to obtain Corsica on it's being ceded by Genoa. French troops are now embarking at Toulon for the island. Mentions the expected resistance by the Corsicans who would prefer the protection of the English, but feels that little will be done until it is too late. A message was sent 3 weeks ago to the Court in London about the above, but no reply forthcoming. Mentions that thirty people are dying daily through the fever, which is more than four times the norm. There is a dearth in Italy with only three days rain since Christmas.

/9: 11 July 1768
Letter to Sukey Denham, London from J Denham, Leghorn, Italy: Thanks her for her most enjoyable letter
and is glad to find her in better spirits, and that she has received his trifles that were posted. He longs to see her picture which can be transported by any captain going to Leghorn. Mentions Mrs Peach, who appears to be dying. He is surprised that Mr Earle has replied to his letter, sent via Mr Hodgson. He knows little of the events that Earle is to send a young gentleman to this house. He has received two letters from Mrs Earle, and in one it is reported that Mr Earle is to change Denham's wife's "situation". Complains about the lack of correspondence from Mr Earle. He hopes that she will be coming out next Spring, dependent upon Mr Earle's actions. Feels that the air of Italy would be beneficial for her health but she must take care of herself, for the "Fever" still rages in Italy. There has been no rain. Mentions articles of clothing, and "pieces" which he has sold to Lord Cowper for £16. He hopes to send his wife some money. He explains why he took the name Joseph due to a mistake on the passport he obtained from the British Ambassador in Genoa. Therefore, he decided to keep it. He was pleased to receive her letter because of the sentiments contained, which are reciprocated. He states that Mrs Earle does not like England, the people or the climate. Dares not tell Mr Earle, for fear that Earle may come to Italy, of which he is passionately fond.

/10: 18 July 1768
Letter to S Denham, Leicester Fields, London from J Denham, Leghorn: He was pleased that his presents were liked by her especially the picture that inspired her to tenderness towards him and he will try to make this feeling long and lasting. When he is settled in business he will send for her, but it should not be before spring. He expects a letter tomorrow from Mr Earle as he wrote to him the previous Friday. Denham cannot leave the area until September and he hopes for an answer in August. Mr Earle has refused a young gentleman to the company twelve months previously until Earle had provided for Denham. Now since a young man was due to arrive soon from Liverpool, this is viewed as being favourable. However, he is unsure of his own position, and Earle's intentions towards him. He feels there will be a corn shortage in Italy next winter, he will get enough for himself and Sukey for three years, and he will get more money, the more the Italians starve. Describes the climate along the coast as originally being bad, but the increase in buildings has drained the country of noxious vapours. The current fever is the result of the lack of rain and poor fruit. To avoid fever is not to eat the fruit, and to take "flour of brimstone". People in this area live longer than previously. Discusses Italy and mentions the firing of guns as a salute to the Duke and Duchess of Naples, who had been at the wedding of the King of Naples. They were convoyed by Commodore Spry in the Jersey and the frigate Aquilon. Sir Jacob Wheaton was a passenger on the former but has departed to Florence whilst the ships will go to Gibraltar in order to settle a dispute between the English and the "Emporer" [sic] of Morocco, and then to convoy merchant men.
P.S. In which he complains about the non-arrival of a letter from Mr Earle, and that he would correspond with Sukey weekly only for the heavy postage.

/11: 25 July 1768
Letter to Sukey Denham, Leicester Fields, London from J B Denham, Leghorn, Italy: Complains about having received no letter from her. Mr Earle has written to Mr Hodgson that the new establishment which is to be opened, will be to the account of their house, but since a replacement for Denham will not be available until next year, he will receive a larger share of the profits as compensation for the delay. Earle will write to him, fully, on his return to Liverpool, on receiving this information he will keep his wife fully employed.

/12: n.d. c1768
A prayer written in long hand for the family to be used either in the morning or evening, possible written by
Joseph Denham. [Fragile]

/13: 9 Sept 1768
Letter to Sukey Denham (same address) from Joseph Denham, Leghorn: Earle has finally sent him the articles of partnership, and he could expect to get ¾ of the profits from the new business in Civita Vecchia. A new cargo is to be prepared by Earle which will keep Denham busy for some time. He is to leave Leghorn for Civita Vecchia to open the establishment and be ready for the expected cargo due in the second week of October. Mentions what spirit is needed for this work. He will inform her of the place and his situation there. Berates her poor record of writing, explains that Civita Vecchia is in the Papal States, and therefore, there is no British Consul there. The place is a free port and many English ships go there. The Pope has appointed an Italian to look after British interest but Denham feels that a Briton should be Consul because of the Italian's poor English. The Court of Britain should be approached by Mrs Denham in order to make Joseph Consul. The approach should be made through the Duke of Beaufort. There is a problem that there can be no direct approach to the Pope. Describes the profits of the Consulship and advises his wife that she would be entitled to them for getting the job for him. The French have 250,000 men of Corsica, and are in possession of Cape Corsa, all the ports excepting Isola Bossa, as well as the Isle of Cossaraja, and have expelled the population from there.

/14: 21 Jan 1771
Letter to Messr John Denham, London from Joseph Denham, Italy [?]: Acknowledges the receipt of a
previous letter, and as a response encloses a bill for £15 from T Jenkins of Rome to Messrs Child & Co., London. Mentions the threat of war and the detrimental effect it would have on trade especially in Italy. Also believes that the English Constitution may have altered recently, and the aristocracy seems to be in control. He believes that religion is giving way to philosophy in proportion to the latters increase.

/15: 29 Apr 1771
Letter to Mrs J Denham, 2 Whitcombe Street, London from Joseph Denham: Received both letters from his wife and Mr Earle, although the latter letter was written by someone else. As a result Denham has locked Earle's letter away and is reluctant to read its contents. Mentions that his wife has not replied to his pressing letters in the past, both to her and her sister but to no avail. Her letters ceased before he left Leghorn. He supposed her dead, and associated with other ladies of "unblemished character", until he got one pregnant before moving to Civita Veccia. He was attacked by this lady's family. Believing himself at liberty, he married the lady due to worries at the consequences if he refused to marry her, on Mr Earle's patronage and kindness. After a Papal dispensation he married the lady, and was afterwards delivered of a son. He also has a daughter and is expecting a further increase in November. He does not blame the Italian wife for any of the actions and relates his attempts to nullify the marriage. Expresses his gratitude for the kindness shown by Mr Earle, but now realises that Sukey can not, nor does he desire any regard towards him but hopes that she realises he was not intentionally wicked. His affection for her will remain for the rest of his life. Mr Earle may be made aware of this letter, but she must advise Earle to keep the contents of the letter secret. (Address endorsed with the silence Mr D mentions when I was blind.) [Fragile and Torn]

/16: 8 Mar 1774
Letter to an unknown friend (Mr Earle) from S D (Sukey), Greenwich. Mentions an enclosed letter from Denham which gave her both pleasure and pain. Describes her pleasure at hearing of his health, and good-fortune and despair that he will not see her again. She believes that ambition killed all tender feelings, and she wishes to see him once more. She has read his letter a number of times and on each occasion her mood changes from feelings that he loves her, to doubts. She longs for a letter from Denham, and is confident that he will send her one especially when he receives the present from her at Leghorn. Her financial matters are mentioned and how she paid various debts - Mr Earle is to come to London and will have to sit for a painting to be carried out by Sukey for Denham! She offers to paint Lady Earle's portrait as well. If he cannot make the sitting could he send Sukey the letter from Denham as she longs to see it.

D/EARLE/3/4/1-34: 1817

/1: 21 Feb 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Spekelands from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage, Liverpool; requesting the Leghorn
business accounts.

/2: 21 Feb 1817
Letter to Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage, Wavertree from Thomas Earle, Spekelands re: acknowledgement of above.

/3: 21 Feb 1817
Letter to W Leathom, Hanover Street, Liverpool from William Earle; instructing him of the action to take if Willis Earle calls for the accounts.

/4: 22 Feb 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Spekelands from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage, Liverpool, informing Thomas Earle of his intention to visit the Counting House to inspect his Leghorn accounts.

/5: 23 Feb 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle from William Earle, Everton re: the problem with Willis wishing to inspect the accounts. The machine has broken in the Counting House adding to Williams problems.

/6: 24 Feb 1817
Letter to William Earle, Everton from W Leathom. Mentions that a gentleman called several times to see
the books but not all the material could be found.

/7: 24 Feb 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Spekelands from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage, Liverpool; stating the number of times he called at the Counting House, and was still not shown the accounts.

/8: 2 Mar 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Spekelands from William Earle; stating that cousin Willis is causing trouble over
the books.

/9: 3 Mar 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Hanover Street, Liverpool from Willis Earle. Reminding Thomas of the need for
statement of accounts. Gives a history of his action and their response to date. Requests a statement of all accounts by 6 March.

/10: 3 Mar 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Spekelands from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage re: his wish to have a final settlement on 10th and to see the accounts by the 6th

/11: 3 Mar 1817
Letter to Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage from Thomas Earle, Spekelands re: counteracting of Willis's allegations. He feels that he has been treated disrespectfully by Willis. However, he has hopes of arranging a meeting between himself, Willis and Mr Drake, a partner in the business, on the 10th at Spekelands. Apologies for not arranging one earlier but prior engagements made that impossible.

/12: 6 Mar 1817
Letter to Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage from Thomas Earle, Spekelands; explaining that because of Mr Drake's poor health and bad weather, he declined the meeting, much to the regret of Thomas. Mr Drake has sent all the papers in his possession to Willis. The account will be sent to Willis Earle before or on the deadline.

/13: 8 Mar 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Spekelands from William Earle (address not known) re: general advice on the explanations and the writing of the accounts given.

/14: 19 Mar 1817
Letter to an unknown party from Thomas & Will Earle (copy only, original not sent) re: explanation of accounts.

/15: 23 Mar 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Hanover Street from William Earle, Chester re his plans to see as much of the letter as possible, and the problems arising.

/16: 24 Mar 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Hanover Street, Liverpool from William Earle, Chester(?) re: Mr D's pleasure with the statement of accounts.

/17: 24 Mar 1817
Letter to William Earle, Everton from Thomas Earle, Liverpool re: business and criticism of Mr Drake's affairs. Recounts past problems with corrupt underwriters and compares the past with present problems, and the only course is to consult lawyers (torn and fragile).

/18: 16 Apr 1817
Letter from Thomas Earle, Liverpool (un-posted) re: business matters concerning the settlement of business in Italy in 1796 [wet copy].

/19: 17 Apr 1817
Letter to Thomas and William Earle, Liverpool from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage re: business matters, his
reply to the one previously - feels that Mr Hodgson was "shoddily" treated by the firm in 1796; Fantechi (Italian agent) is not to be paid fully, and all his claims to be resisted.

/20: 19 Apr 1817
Letter to William Earle, Everton from Thomas Earle, Spekelands re: business matters and that his comprehension of the details is lost re: the events of 1796

/21: 19 Apr 1817
Letter to Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage from Thomas & William Earle, Liverpool re: business matters,
including Willis's request for the full indemnity from the business with the Italian firm in 1796, and until this has happened he will not come to an agreement with Earle, Hodgson and Drake, since they paid Fantechi in 1796. He advises Willis to follow his own paths to try and recover the money.

/22: 19 Apr 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Liverpool from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage: Willis Earle is correcting a mistake on how and who paid £4,500 to Fantechi in 1796. It was made to him as individuals and not as part of the business house.

/23: n.d. c May 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Liverpool from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage re: business accounts and the freight accounts of ships Mercury, Helen, Globe and Zebulum, handled by Earle, Hodgson and Drake in Leghorn. The freights were collected after Drake had left Leghorn. Expresses concern over the accounts of 1796 and the mismanagement of money.

/24: 6 June 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage re: business matters - viz copy of letter sent by
John Drake of Chester to Thomas which is Drake's recollection of the business transaction in 1796 (up to 1800).

/25: 9 June 1817
Letter to Thomas and William Earle, Liverpool from Willis Earle, Sandown Cottage; demanding that
Thomas Earle's company should pay 3/16 of £2,302.11s.4d (as agreed) by 11 June 1817. Endorsed in pencil, "delivered Willis on the 10 June 1817".

/26: 23 July 1817
Letter to Thomas Earle, Spekelands - addressed to Will, asking him to call at Hanover Street and bring the
letters with him, and the writer will be happy with his decision on the matter.

/27: 15 Aug 1817
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., from Thomas Earle re: the liquidation of Earle & Hodgson and Mr Drake's desire to see the accounts.

/28: n.d. c1817
Letter (addressee unknown) from Thomas Earle [?]; advising the company how to deal with a letter. The reverse is a copy or an extract of the business transaction in Italy, 1797.

/29: n.d. c1817
A page showing the main finances from the year 1796.

/30: n.d. c1817
Letter discussing the amount of freight to be transported, and money to be tendered.

/31: n.d. c1817
Letter over what policy to pursue in this business matter.

/32: n.d. c1817
Letter about Earle's position, whether to dispute Mr Drake's account and what would be the result.
[Part Only]

/33: n.d. c1817
Letter [parts] showing a reluctance to settle, other options to maintain silence, etc., by Thomas Earle.
[3 Items, all parts of various letters]

/34: n.d.
Postscript of a letter to William Earle [?] from Thomas Earle [?] relating to the exchange rate and the
problem of Earle, Drake & Hodgson.


/1: 2 June 1838 a + b-23 Feb 1852
Letter to Colonel Earle, Paris from John Gibson R.A., sculptor re: investment in Liverpool Docks. Also a letter instructing Messrs T & W Earle to pay £20 to his brother, Solomon Gibson. [2 items]


3/6/1: 2 May 1812
Printed Resolutions of the United Committee of the Corporation of Liverpool, and of the Merchant, Shipowners, &c..., for obtaining a Free Trade to the East Indies and China, for a meeting held at the Town Hall, Liverpool. Thomas Earle, Chairman.


/1: 5 April 1763
Articles of Partnership, signed by:
Jonathan Blundell
Thomas Hodgson
Peter Holme
Patrick Black
Ralph Earle
Thomas Lickbarrow
For carrying on the sugar refinery at the Haymarket Sugar House, Liverpool.

/2: 24 July 1766
Articles of Partnership between the following
Liverpool Merchants:
William Davenport
Peter Holme
Thomas Hodgson
Ralph Earle
Thomas Earle
William Earle
John Copeland
For carrying on trade of selling beads, arrangoes, etc.

[Please note that for D/EARLE/5 the order of the material on film varies slightly from the order in which the material is listed.]

5/1/1: 31 Oct -29 Nov 1823
Travelling expenses in Britain and Ireland, and legal expenses relating to the acquisition of the plantations.

/2: 1829-1834
List of births and ages of children born to slaves on the plantation.

/3: 31 Dec 1832
List of Plantations for District of Berbice, giving number of slaves and returns for each plantation.

/4: 1 Jan 1834 -25 June 1934
Statement of produce sold from Plantations Utile and Paisible.

/5: 1 July 1834
Balance Sheet of Utile and Paisible Plantations.

/6: 1 Aug 1834
Return for slaves on Plantation Utile and Paisible for workforce.

/6A: Aug 1834
List of labourers in Plantations Utile and Paisible.

/7: Nov 1834
Balance Sheet for books, clothing, sundry items.

/8: 1834
Liquidation of Claims against Plantations Utile and Paisible.

/9: 1834-1841
Memorandum and Extracts from letters and sales estimates as to value and sale of Estates.

/10: 1836-1837
Calculations of costs of Hanover Plantation.

/11: 15 Dec 1841
Letter (copy) to I Kirkwood from John Ross re: Mr Carter's visit to Hanover Estate.

/12: 27 Dec 1841
Letter (copy) to I Kirkwood from I Crowthorn, introducing William Carter and his pending visit to plantation.

/13: 28 Dec 1841
Letter (copy) to I Kirkwood from John Ross re: sale of Hanover Estate.

/14: n.d
Salaries and sundry expenses on Demerara Estate.

/15: n.d
Memorandum re: plan of Utile and Paisible.

/16: 27 Dec 1841
Letter (copy) to Campbell and Chisholm from W H Earle and John Crosthwaite. Letter (copy) to E Hicks Esq. [2 items] 27 Dec 1841

/17: 28 Dec 1841
Letter (copy) to William Campbell re: sale of Hanover Estate from William Earle.

/18: n.d
Calculations for Claims statements of Balance Sheets.

/19: n.d


Letter to William Campbell and Baillie Chisholm, Berbice [unsigned] re: their appointment.

/2: 1838-1841
List of the number of people employed on the Hanover plantation.

/3: 1839
Returns of Berbice sugar estate crops.

/4: 14 Oct 1841
Letter to Thomas and William Earle, Liverpool, from William Campbell re: labour problems with Dutch Negroes.

/5: 18 Oct 1841-11 Jan 1842
Letters to Thomas and William Earle from William Campbell, re: possibility of labour shortage being met by African immigrants, land cultivation, etc. [4 items]

/6: 25 Mar 1842
Letter from Pitt Watson (Plantation Headman), Hanover Berbice, to William Carter, New Amsterdam, re: visit to the estate and draft of reply.

/7: 12 Apr 1842
Letter from Mr Nash (Manager, Plantation), Berbice, to William Carter, Liverpool re: plantation labour

/8: 7-9 May, 30 July 1842
Correspondence between Edward Hicks, Berbice, and William Carter re: African immigrant labour, plantation cultivation and Hicks' return to England.

/9: 30 June 1842
Letter from William Carter, Liverpool (unaddressed) re: his safe return to England.

/10: 7 July 1842-10 July 1843
Letter from William Nash, Berbice, to William Carter re: plantation [partially illegible]. [2 Items]

/11: 15-31 Aug 1842
Letters from William Carter to Nash re: improvements to estate and African labour. [2 Items]

/12: 20 Sept -24 Nov 1842
Letters from William Nash to William Carter, c/o Milan. [2 Items]

/13: 15 April -1 Sept 1843
Letters from William Carter, Liverpool, unaddressed re: plantation business [wet copies, 1 partially illegible]. [5 Items]

[Please note that for D/EARLE/5 the order of the material on film varies slightly from the order in which the material is listed.]

/1: 18 Dec 1833
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from Roschilds in France re: sale of Plantations Utile and Plaisible.

/2: 1 Jan 1834 -3 May 1834
"Statements of Produce made at and sold by Tenders for Plantations Utile and Paisible, and adjusted claims European and Colonial payable by Thomas & William Earle & Co."

/3: 28 Apr 1834
John Ross of New Amsterdam to T & W Earle & Co, Liverpool, re: conveyancing of Plantations Utile and Paisible.

/4: 17 July 1834
Letter from John Ross of New Amsterdam to Thomas & William Earle congratulating him on taking over the estate. Settlement of estate discussed.

/5: 1839
List of Bills drawn on Plantations (written calculations).

/6: 1841
(a-c) Calculations of sugar, rum and molasses, and sums received. [3 Items]

/7: 4 July 1842
Number and names of people on Hanover Plantation.

/8: 1 Mar 1842
Memorandum of Agreement between William Carter as Attorney for T & W Earle & Co., Merchants of Liverpool and William Nash of Berbice, Planter for Sugar Plantation, Hanover.

/9: 18 Mar 1842
Legal document qualifying identities of William Carter and Thomas and William Earle, and granting authority for sale of landed property.

/10: 1 Mar 1842
(a-b) Letters to William Carter, (one a copy) respecting taking over Attorneyship from William Campbell. [2 items]

/11: 25 May (?)1842
Memoranda of conversation with Mr Chisholme re: Mr Chisholme's unsuccessful visit to Barbados for

/12: 15 Nov 1844
Letter to William & Thomas Earle from C Hicks re: immigrant labour, and use of guano and ammonia
fertiliser. General plantation news. Details of salaries.

/13: 28 Nov 1852
Letter written from Berbice communicating death of Mr E Hicks. Signed by Executors - R Hart, Edmund L Henery and J Campbell Jr.

/14: 22 Oct 1875
Letter from Andrew M Watt to T & W Earle & Co. offering to lease Hanover Plantation as a provision farm.
The estate being overgrown and abandoned, he offers £100 a year for 3 years, to be increased to £150 for the next 3 years.

/15: 27 Nov 1875
Letter to 'My dear Henry' from William Langton, Liverpool. Does not wish to sell plantation but willing to let it for a fair rent. Asks for a recommended Agent in Berbice (2 pp.).

/16: 29 Dec 1876
Envelope endorsed with "Agreement to let Plantation Hanover to Robert P Clements from 1 November 1876 for 5 years" (Agreement missing).

/17: n.d. c.1876
Written statement to the effect that Mr Earle's and Mr Leathom's Wills must be examined to establish if they have the power of attorney to sell the plantation.

/18: n.d.
Binn's sketch of Agreement as to 'Hanover'.

[Plese note that for D/EARLE/5 the order of the material on film varies slightly from the order in which the material is listed.]

/1: 9 July 1833
Letter to William Leith from Richard Earle at ColonialOffice, Discusses Slave Abolition Bill; Substitution of money on Estate for Negroes; mortgages; Emigrants Agency in Liverpool; Emigrant Shops.

/2: 30 Nov 1833
Letter to Thomas Leathom Esq. from Hardman Earle Hope Street, Liverpool re: buying of Estate, selling price and legal claims on the estate.

/3: 9 May 1834?
Letter to William Leith from Richard Earle at Colonial Office, re: Colony of British Guiana and slaves £119 per head.

/4: 7 June 1836
Agreement between Messrs Hall McGarel & Co. and Messrs T and W Earle & Co. For the sale and purchase of the Coffee Plantation Op Hoop Van Beter, Cum-annexis, and the services of the apprenticed labourers.

/5: 11 Feb 1837
Document of District of Berbice, Colony of British Guiana containing agreement to hand over Coffee Plantation of Op Hoop Van Beter and labourers of William Earle the elder, Thomas Leathom and William Earle the younger of Liverpool to David Hall and Charles McGarel.

/6: 27 Nov 1837
Letter to Thomas Leathom Esq., Mosley's Hotel, Trafalgar Square, London, from Richard Earle re: the fact that the removal of apprentices from one estate to another requires their consent for legal purposes. Regrets expenditure of £1500 for their transference. Criticises Character of agent in transaction, but does not wish to be prejudiced by his acts on the estimate. Stresses the need to have confidence in an agent which will ensure freedom for the lot of the apprenticed labourer. Added letter as postscript: Hopes that the reference to the agent's (Faloon?) misconduct (if any) does not denounce him.

/7: 16 Nov 1837
Letter to His Excellency (Sir C Smith Bach?) From (?). Regarding mortgage of Hanover Estate and concern about the comfort of Negroes in transportation.

/8: 10 Dec 1837
Letter to Mr Leathom, Mosley's Hotel, Trafalgar Square, London from Richard Earle at Leamington. Discusses Abolition and Slavery Act, and difference of labour required on sugar plantation compared with that on a Coffee Estate. "...I cannot subscribe to his (Steven's) doctrine that the welfare of the Negro is to be measured by the ideas of an uneducated and therefore unreasoning being..."

/9: 14 Oct 1841
Letter (duplicate original) from (?) at Berbice, to Messrs T and W Earle & Co., regarding Dutch labourers (Negroes) being inefficient on Sugar Estates compared with Coffee Estates. English Negroes keep Estate in fine order. Refers to sale of Estates being at a standstill, and is encouraged by sailings carrying emigrants from Sierra Leone. People from Madeira have 40% mortality rate.

/10: 7 May 1900
Letter from (?) Earle, 40 Aughton Road, Birkdale to Henry (?) regarding family wills. Reference to Berbice
Estate and how it is divided between members of the Earle family. [Condolence black-bordered paper].

/11: n.d.
Proposals of The Imperial Insurance Company, London, belonging to Thomas Leathom Esq. For insuring wares and merchandises, ships, in Port or in Dock. [Torn and Fragile]

[Please note that for D/EARLE/5 the order of the material on film varies slightly from the order in which the material is listed.]

/1 a): 9 May 1834
Newspaper cutting re: Will in favour of T and W Earle & Co., of Liverpool, merchants, transport of the Plantation of Utile and Paisible on west bank of River Berbice and 137 slaves.

b): 31 May 1834
Also a list of arrested slaves in the Colonial Jail.

/2: 8 June 1834
Letter to Mr Carter of T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool from Wm. Chisholm regarding repair of Gun locks.

/3 a): c.1834
Copy of Lists of names of Slaves on Plantations Utile and Paisible. Also names of girl and boy infants.

b): Sept 1834
Monthly Returns of Plantations Utile and Paisible (Sugar, Rum and Molasses, Cane, Negro labourers, Livestock).

/4: 9 Oct 1836
Letter to William Carter, c/o Messrs Thomas & William Earle, Liverpool, from William Chisholm, Plantation Hanover, Berbice, Hanover. Refers to sea voyage taking 36 days travelling to Plantation. Hopes to increase Sugar yield when the Op Hoop Van Beter slaves are rehoused.

/5: 14 Jun 1836-6 Nov 1837
Copy extracts from T W Earle for letters to Mr Faloon Refers to new dwellings for Negroes and considers the wisdom of using slate for the houses but thinks thatch is more temperate. Awaits arrival of Sarah carrying slate. Reference to Invoice for seven yards printed cotton for female apprentices as inducement for good behaviour. Concern about the removal of the Negroes and anxiety re: Governor's permission.

/6: 29 Apr 1836-19 Aug 1836
Extracts of letters from Mr Faloon re: cost of Negro houses. Negroes are whipped if they oppose leaving to go to Hanover. Many opposed to going to sugar plantations.

/7: 29 Apr 1836-17 Sept 1837
Extracts from Mr Faloon's letters re: cost of building houses for Negroes and materials involved (slates and shingles) to be shipped at Liverpool. Concern to make houses comfortable in Hanover. Negroes of the Waahrawheid [?] whipped for not moving to Mara [?]. Governor does not give permission for removal of slaves as labourers decline to go. Written document regarding removing of slaves to Hanover submitted to magistrate, asking for sanction. Mr Faloon decides to apply again for permission to move slaves, and blames the law allowing slaves option of moving or not.

/8: 6 Feb 1837
Letter to Mr Carter, Messrs T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool from W Chisholm, Berbice, Hanover re: sailing of Sarah. Expects to have good crop of sugar cane in the coming year.

/9: 16 Sept 1837
Letter to Mr Carter (as above) from W Chisholm of Plantation Overwinning [?] Berbice re: crops of sugar cane.

/10: 14 Jun 1838-17 Nov 1840
Extracts re: disposal of building on H V B.

/11: 20 Sept 1839
Extract of a letter from T & W Earle and Co., New York, re: supplying labour to Trinidad and British Guiana. Abolitionists in the north express their disapproval.

/12: 5 Sept 1839-24 Jan 1840
Letters (wet copies) one addressed to John Ross from Thomas Earle [?] re: plantation business and their account with Wm. Campbell & Hicks. [4 Items]

/13: c.26 Sep 1839
Diary notes on paper re: employing Negroes.

/14 a): n.d. c.20 Dec
Letter to Mr William Carter from Richard Earle at Lodge Lane, Liverpool enclosing letter
b): 1841 (?)
to Mr Jas Stephens. Refers to letter of introduction to Mrs Young, Civil Secretary in Bristol Guiana.
b): 27 Dec 1841
Letter to Stephen, Under Secretary to the Colonies, Downing Street, asking for an official introduction for Mr William Carter to go to Berbice.

/15: c.1840s
Map of Berbice plantations.


/1: 20 Nov 1837
Copy of letter to Thomas & William Earle, Liverpool from John Ross, Attorney, at Inverness re: change of Agency. Recommends he sees Mr Junor as a practical Sugar Planter who knows Hanover well.

/2: 9 Feb 1838
Letter to T and W Earle & Co., from Campbell Faloon at Berbice re: the request for his resignation as Attorney of Hanover.

/3: 5 June 1838
Letter as 6/2 above.

/4: 14 Sept 1839
Letter to Thomas Leathom of T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool from John Ross of Inverness regarding a new agent to run plantation, and cost of provisions on plantations.

/5: 16 Sept 1839
Letter to Thomas Leathom of T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool from John Ross at Berbice Cottage, recommending Mr Alpin Grant to run the Sugar Plantation as Attorney of Hanover.

/6: 12 Oct 1839
Letter to Thomas Leathom, Liverpool, from John Ross at Inverness. Further correspondence on the management of the sugar plantation at Hanover.

/7: 30 Dec 1839
Letter to Thomas & William Earle, Liverpool from John Ross at Inverness. Refers to Hanover having a reputation of being one of the most unproductive Estates of the Colony. Possible selling price. Balance of accounts. Asks for Earles' to settle his Boys' School Bill.

/8: 10 Jan 1840
Letter to Thomas & William Earle, Liverpool, from John Ross at Inverness. Points out error in accounts.

/9: 20 Jan 1840
Letter as above. Recommends that sale of the plantation Hanover should not be by auction, nor by advertising, but the Agent should generally let it be known. Discusses mortgage of the plantation and selling
it to a suitable purchaser.

/10: 30 Oct 1840
Letter to Thomas & William Earle from John Ross at Berbice Cottage. He feels emancipation of slaves contributed to loss in Hanover plantation, besides the mismanagement. Further suggestions for names of a new manager for Hanover.

/11: 16 Aug 1841
Letter to Thomas & William Earle, of Poole from John Ross, Berbice Cottage, re: emancipation of slaves and subsequent discontent regarding notes of pay. Criticism of Agent running high expenses, and bad.

/12: Oct 1841
Jackson (Berbice) to J Booker. Refers to the management of the Estate had been in too many hands to prosper. The Estate is considered to be a poor concern.

/13: 18 Nov 1841
Letter to The Rev. Thomas Carter, 8 Breckfield Road South, Everton, Liverpool, from T I Bowrie re: climate, mode of attire, medicines and company to keep whilst on board ship. Gives names of respectable and religious people to meet on arrival.

/14: 21 Oct -19 Nov 1841
Letters from William & Thomas Earle to John Ross, Berbice re: Sale of Plantation, choice of Agent, etc. [wet copies, illegible]. [3 Items]

/15: 20 Nov 1841
Letter to William & Thomas Earle from John Ross, Berbice Cottage. Highly recommends Mr Kirkwood
to be Agent. Suggests Mr Carter should visit between November and the end of April for a fine climate.

/16: 24 Nov 1841
Letter to Mr Carter (?) from John Ross, Berbice Cottage re: visit to Colony in clement weather. Recommends dosages of Epsom salts in the first few weeks of his stay to offset the climate, early to bed and early to rise, universally practised there!

/17: 1 Dec 1841
Letter to William Carter, W & T Earle & Co., Liverpool, from John Ross, re; a request by a mother wishing to send a cask to her son. Writer recommended shipment by steam via Caledonian Canal to Glasgow and on to Liverpool, but the cask was not received.

/18: 7 Dec 1841
Letter to William Carter, W & T Earle & Co., from John Ross, re: samples of copper for valuation.

/19: 15 Dec 1841
Letter to W T Earle from John Ross at Berbice Cottage. If a sale cannot be accomplished recommends a Lease not exceeding 5-7 years.

/20: 17 Dec 1841
Letter to W T Earle from John Ross, Berbice Cottage re: recommendations in buying of Hanover Plantation.

/21: Sept 1939
Outline details re: the Berbice Plantation's history, written by T A Earle.


/1-10: Nov 1840-41
Sundry monthly accounts for Sugar, Rum, Molasses, Jan, Sept, Cane, Livestock and Negro labour. [10 Items]

/11: n.d. c.1842
Contract of Agreement for sale of Plantation Hanover by Thomas & William Earle to William Nash of British
Guiana (undated and unsigned).


/1: 15 Dec 1841
Legal Document - Power of Attorney appointing William Carter to sell estates in British Guiana.

/2: 28 Dec 1841
Copy letters to De Rham & Moore, New York, James Kirkwood, William Campbell and Baillie Chisholm,
Berbice, introducing William Carter and his authority as the Earle's attorney [1 wet copy. illegible].

/3: 28 Dec 1841
Letter to William Carter from Thomas & William Earle, Liverpool, instructing him to a) sell the estate; b) rent it; c) keep managing it "as it is a source of constantly increasing expense to us...." (2 copies and 2 wet copies) [4 items].

/4a): 23 & 24 Jan 1842
Letter to Thomas & William Earle from William Carter, re his arrival in Demerara.

/4b): 25 Jan 1842
Letter as above re: question of selling property is out of the question. The estate has better buildings and
cottages than any other.

/4c): 23 Jan 1842
Letter addressed as above. Contains number of miles travelled each day in the steamer Thames, light trade winds.

/5a): 31 Jan 1842
Letter to Thomas & William Earle from William Carter, re: the attempted sale of the estate.

/5b): 31 Jan 1842
Same as above. [2 items]

/6: 9 Feb 1842
Letter as above regarding the state of buildings and persuading men to work on plantations. Blames lack of productivity on past estate managers [3 items]

/7: 26 Feb 1842
Letter as above re: comments on the estate being neglected. Mr Nash expresses an interest in purchasing 1/3 of the estate.

/8: 8 Mar 1842-13 Mar 1842
Letter to Thomas & William Earle, Liverpool from W Carter at Plantation Albion, East Coast of Berbice re: conversation with Mr Kirkwood who is shocked to see the estate in such wretched order. Agreement to sell 1/3 of the estate for £4,000 to Mr Nash (& duplicate). [3 items]

/9: 24 Mar 1842
Letter to Thomas and William Earle, Liverpool, from William Carter: Carter executes power of Attorney in favour of Mr Hicks, Lowinfield and Nash. Discusses accounts [& duplicate]. (Wet copies; illegible). [4 Items]

/10: 7 Apr 1842
Letter as above: Carter awaits for steamer in Berbice to travel to Barbados carrying mail from England. Decides to travel on Brig Waringsford which proves to be a stormy journey. The 'Port Mousant' estate has been sold at a low price of £7000, purchased by an old German.

/11: 22 Apr 1842
Letter as above: William Carter will take the American schooner Emeline as the English steamer has failed to turn up. Requests that the manure is not sent out to Guiana as the soil does not require it (Guano).

/12: 28 Apr 1842
Letter as above, from William Carter at St Thomas, awaiting the American schooner to travel to Savannah, Charleston, New York, Boston and Halifax. Hopes to see William Earle in June. Has drawn £30 in favour of Rothschild Robbs & Co., payable in Liverpool.

/13: 14 May 1842
Letter to William Earle Esq., Liverpool from William Carter, New York. Departed on steamer Trent to New York [most of letter illegible].

/14: 23 May 1842
Letter to William Earle, Liverpool from William Carter, New York advising of draft of £50 payable to De Rham & Moore, London

/15: 27 May 1842
Letter to William Earle, Liverpool from William Carter, Rochester, USA. Gives an account of his movements in US and meetings with business associates.

D/EARLE/5/9/1-9: LETTERS, RE: TRADE; 1841-1846

/1: 31 Dec 1841
Letter: William Earle, Liverpool to William Carter on board the Tay Steamer, c/o Messrs W & E C Caine, Falmouth re: sale of merchandise, e.g. gum waste.

/2: 15 Jan 1842
Letter: William Earle, Liverpool to William Carter, Berbice re: deliveries of silk, sales of cotton, etc.

/3: 1 Feb 1842
As (2) above.

/4: 1 Mar 1842
As (2).

/5: 15 Mar 1842
As (2).

/6: 1 Apr 1842
As (2).

/7: 15 Apr 1842
As (2).

/8: 11 Feb 1842
Liverpool Prices Current, Imports etc., including letter (torn) re: arrivals of silk in London.

/9: 7 Nov 1846
Letter: [signed Pro. J. Booker], Thomas Lawrence, 46 Castle Street, Liverpool, to William Earle re: handing
over documents relating to transfer of the Estate to Thomas & William Earle, and Articles of Partnership between Thomas and William Earle and partners in silk trade, and two probates of Will of Thomas Leathom deceased, etc



/1: 9 Mar 1810
General account of the Residue of effects of the late Mrs Stanley, showing distributions to the Earles.

/2: 13 Jan 1834
Notice from the Registrar's Office, Berbice, regarding mortgages affecting Plantations Utile and Paisible and slaves.

/3: 31 Dec 1845
Balance of account for Plantation Hanover.

/4: 13 May 1846
Letter to William Carter from Charles Earle, Leamington, regarding the expense of keeping up the Hanover Estate. [on a small envelope marked "Charles Earle. Respecting abandonment of Hanover"].

/5: 2 Mar 1863
Letter to 'My dear Thomas' from C W Earle, 5 Bryanston Square, W., regarding omission of Hanover in the directory. Request to be made to Mr Mason, manager of the Demerara Railway to investigate boundaries of the estate.

/6: 1 Nov 1876 and 24 Nov 1876
Letter (copy) to W F Bridges from Robert P Clements agreeing to take the place (Hanover). On reverse side, another letter to: Thomas William Earle, Liverpool from W F Bridges of Berbice re: Agreement for five years rental of Hanover, and requesting signature and witnesses to the Agreement.

/7: 28 Dec 1876
Letter to Thomas Earle Esq., from Laces, Bird, Newton & Richardson, forwarding Agreement re: renting of Hanover.

/8: 15 Dec 1876
Letter to 'Dear Thomas' from Charles Earle, agreeing to Mr Bridges' letter to have the estate cultivated.

/9: 27 Mar 1877
Account in the name of William Earle and Charles Earle for drawing up of the Agreement for letting the Plantation called Hanover in Berbice to Mr Robert P Clements, drawn up by Laces, Bird, Newton & Richardson.

/10: 1 Aug 1879
Letter to 'Dear Norman' from Charles Earle, 27 Park Street, regarding methods of payment for plantation being undesirable.

/11: 3 Oct 1882
Letter to T & W Earle & Co from W F Bridges & Co Berbice, British Guiana regarding Mr Clemence, taking over the lease of 'Hanover' at £200 per annum.

/12: 16 Aug 1882
Letter to T & W Earle & Co from W F Bridges & Co regarding the non-payment of half of the rent on Hanover by Mr Clemence. Consider his lease at an end.

/13: 15 Feb 1883
Letter to Charles Earle from Sir Thomas Earle re:Charles proposal to buy half of the Hanover estate which belongs to him.

/14: 17 Jul 1883
Letter to Charles Earle from Sir Thomas Earle (?) Regarding Charles' proposal to buy or lease the half of Hanover that belongs to them.

/15: 22 Feb 1883
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding 'Hanovers' history. Asking questions about the estate including whether capital will need to be spent on buildings and machinery etc.

/16: 4 Mar 1833
Copy of a letter to C W Earle from Sir Thomas Earle relating details about the situation of the estate at Berbice.

/17: 7 Mar 1883
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding the real name of 'Hanover' and making sure they don't leave themselves liable to pay taxes.

/18: 15 Aug 1883
Copy of a letter received by C W Earle, about the Hanover Plantation expenses.

/19: Sept 1883
Letter to Charles Earle from Sir Thomas Earle re: Hanover plantation.

/20: 16 Sept 1883
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding a letter sent to C W Earle from W Russell about the Berbice property. Buildings need to be restored.

/21: 22 Oct 1883
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding a letter received by C W Earle from W Mason who has
been offered £100 for Hanover. W Mason has seen Hanover and it appears to have become bush.

/22: 25 Oct 1883
Envelope addressed to Sir Thomas Earle (empty) previously containted (21) above.

/23: 14 Feb 1886
Letter to Arthus from C W Earle. C W Earle asking whether he should buy the other half of the Hanover property.

/24: 9 Jan 1895
To William Earle from R P Clements - Berbice requesting the lease of Hanover for 3 years and asking that if they are willing to sell the property on William Earle's price and terms.

/25: 9 Jul 1895
Slip of paper possibly attached to (24) above.

/26: 25 Jul 1895
Letter to Charles Earle from Thomas Earle regarding R P Clements offer.

/27: 24 Aug 1895(?)
Envelope addressed to William Earle from R P Clements containing bottom half of letter.

/28: 29 Jan 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from Charles Earle (?) regarding finding an agent, a Trinidad man who is a clerk
in the telegraph office. He is to try to find Hanover. They are unsure whether he would be able to put a price on the property.

/29: 4 Feb 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding the question of Taxation on the Hanover estate. Expressing concern that they make enquiries into the taxation situation, gossip will start around George Town.

/30: 21 Mar 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle enclosing letter sent from George Town on 4 March.

/31: 20 Mar 1895
Letter to C W Earle (?) from his agent N A Mathews reporting on his search for the Hanover plantation. Could not view it from the river but asked local land users of the plantation. No buildings left on the site, but no squatters are there either. Fair rent would be £40 per annum. He believes that a splendid cocoa or coconut plantation could be made on Hanover.

/32: 7 Apr 1895
Envelope addressd to Thomas Earle (empty)

/33: 23 Apr 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding the plantation at Hanover. Recommending that Clements could have it for £40 per annum. If he will do some clearing.

/34: 23 Apr 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding who to employ as agent on the Hanover estate since Mathews cannot be used. It might not be worth employing anyone to act as agent. He will write to W Bridge & Co who acted for them before to find out what they think.

/35: 24 Apr 1895
Copy of above letter to Charles Earle from Thomas Earle regarding Mathews as the agent.

/36: 25 Apr 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding the postal order he received from Thomas. Writing to Mathews and starting his summer vacation at Woodland, Cobham, Surrey.

/37: 28 Apr 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding Mathews making arrangements with Clements for the
Hanover property and paying rent into Thomas's account at the colonial bank.

/38: 3 May 1895
Letter to Thomas from C W Earle regarding sending Mathews a letter of the agreement as a guideline.

/39: 3 May 1895
Letter to N P Clements from Sir Thomas Earle regarding leasing the Hanover plantation for 3 years.

/40: 4 May 1895
Letter to Thomas (?) from (?) re: above lease.

/41: nd c 1900
Letter addressed to NA Mathews at George Town re: above.

/42: nd c 1900
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from C W Earle regarding the Berbice estate affair.


/1: (?) 23 Mar 1832
Letter [unaddressed] from William Earle regarding death of Mr Hicks and the effect it will have on Hanover. Recommends that the machinery on the estate is used for some good purpose. Mr G G Lowenfield to succeed Mr Hicks [copy].

/2: 10 Mar 1842
Letter to William Carter from William Campbell re: Mr Kirkwood's visit.

/3: 26 July 1842
Letter to William Carter from William Nash, Plantation Hanover, regarding purchase of 1/3 of Plantation Hanover with the understanding that Africans or Coolies are to be procured for the estate.

/4: 19 Apr 1847
Statement and Appraisment of the condition of the cultivated portion of Plantation Hanover (contained in envelope wrapper with Nos. 5 & 6 below).

/5: 20 Apr 1847
Letter to Edward Hicks from Edmund Fields regarding Appraisment referred to in the annexed agreement relative to condition of fields (contained in envelope wrapper with Nos. 4 & 6).

/6: 24 Apr 1847
Memorandum of Agreement between Edward Hicks (Attorney of Thomas and William Earle of Liverpool)
and Boatswain James and James Emmerson re: occupation of Hanover Plantation (contained in envelope wrapper with Nos. 4 & 5 above).

/7: 8 Jan 1852
Letter to Charles Earle, Boulogne, from William Earle, Liverpool re: winding up of business of Thomas and William Earle ( in envelope)

/8: 29 Nov 1875(?)
Letter to 'My Dear Langton' from Edmund Meney regarding Lease.

/9: 4 Jan 1876
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool from W Bridges, regarding rent of Plantation Hanover by Mr A McWatt, and the poor condition of the land.

/10: 3 Apr 1876
Letter to Thomas and William Earle, Liverpool from John A Just of Berbice, Edinburgh Village, British Guiana, regarding purchase of Hanover Estate for £200. Refers to the damage to the estate during the rainy season. [Fragile]

/11: 14 Apr 1876
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from Robert P Clements of Plantation Providence, requesting lease of Plantation Hanover and terms and conditions of lease.

/12: Dec 1876
Handwritten envelope to Thomas Earle Esq., Liverpool.

/13: 23 Feb 1877
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from W Bridges of Berbice, stating that Agreement for Lease of Hanover Plantation has been signed by Mr Clements.

/14: 24 Dec 1877
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from W Bridges, Berbice, referring to collection of one year's rent from Mr Clements, and amount of Bank Bill.

/15: 4 Jan 1878
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from W Bridges, referring to second Bank Bill.

/16: 5 July 1879
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from W Bridges, Berbice, British Guiana, informing them that Mr Clements was behind with his first payment. On visiting the plantation, discovered it to be overgrown with bush.

/17: 5 July 1879
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from Robert P Clements, New Amsterdam, Berbice, wishing to buy
'the abandoned Plantation Hanover'.

/18: 3 Apr 1880
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from W Bridges, referring to Bank Bill.

/19: 7 May 1880
Letter [unaddressed] from C W Earle, 47 Cambridge Terrace, Hyde Park re: portion of the Berbice estate rent.

/20: 1 July 1881
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool, from W T Bridges regarding alteration of terms of the rent by Mr Clements.

/21: 22 July 1881
Letter to Thomas and William Earle from W T Bridges, Berbice, refers to closure of second Bank Bill.

/22: Jun/Jul 1881
Thomas and William Earle's account with W T Bridges.

/23: 24 Mar 1882
Letter to Thomas and William Earle, Liverpool from W T Bridges, Berbice, regarding Mr Clements' new arrangements for Hanover.

/24: 5 Aug 1881
Receipt from Vesey Holt & Co., 17 Whitehall Place, London SW to Mr C W Earle.

/25: 24 Aug 1881
Letter to T & W Earle & Co., Liverpool from W T Bridges, Berbice, referring to his interest in buying the estate and the property itself.

/26: 11 Sept 1882
Carbon copy of letter to Charles Earle Esq., 5 Bryanston Square, London, from (?) Earle, informing him half of the amount for the sale of the Bricks has been paid.

/27: 12 Sept 1882
Receipt to C W Earle Esq., from Vesey Holt & Co., 17 Whitehall Place, London SW.

/28: 5 Jan 1886
Newspaper articles (The Daily Chronicle) printed in British Guiana, including Time Table of West India Mail Packet Service (in envelope addressed to Thomas Earle Bart., Allerton Towers, Liverpool).

/29: 8 Jan 1886
Letter to C W Earle Esq. from N (?) Mason, Demerara, regarding revoking Licence of Occupancy granted to Plantations Utile and Paisible.

/30: 25 Jan 1886
Letter to Thomas [Earle] from C W Earle, 5 Bryanston Square, W., regarding enclosure from West India Telegraph Company in Demerara (missing).

/31: 4 Feb 1895
Letter to Mr P Clements, New Amsterdam, Berbice from Thomas Earle, Queens Insurance Company, Castle Street, Liverpool, referring to interest in the property.

/32: 29 May 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle from W W Matthews, Port of Spain, Trinidad, referring to his transference from Demerara to Trinidad and promises to look after Plantation Hanover on his return.

/33: 13 June 1895
Envelope addressed to Sir Thomas Earle Bart., 36 Clarges, Piccadilly, London W., leaving two postmarks, one for Trinidad, and the second for Liverpool.

/34: 24 July 1895
Letter to Sir Thomas Earle, Queens Insurance Company, Castle Street, Liverpool, from Robert P Clements, Berbice, requesting him to contact Mr Matthews as no reply had been received to previous letters.

/35: 14 Aug 1895
Copy of letter to Robert P Clements from Thomas Earle in reply to his letter (34) informing him that Mr Matthews was away in Trinidad.

/36: 16 Sept 1897
Memorandum to Sir Thomas Earle Bart., Allerton Towers, Woolton, Liverpool, from N A Matthews, Museum Buildings, Georgetown, Demerara, regarding an enclosed letter and awaiting further instructions.

/37: 7 Sept 1897
Letter to N A Matthews Esq., West Indian Panama, Telegraph Company, Demerara from J Victor, Berbice, regarding his wish to Lease Hanover Estate on the West Bank Rio Berbice for six years. Copy of letter to J Victor Esq., from N A Matthews informing him he would need to consult Sir Thomas Earle before leasing Hanover Estate. (In envelope addressed to Sir Thomas Earle, Bart., Allerton Towers, Woolton, Liverpool) [2 Items]

/38: 30 Sept 1897
Letter to Mr N A Matthews, Georgetown, Demerara, from Thomas Earle, Allerton Towers, Woolton, Liverpool re: renting of estate. Comments that the offer is a poor one.

/39: 13 May 1899
Extract from The Daily Chronicle, Georgetown, British Guiana, regarding tax on lands not beneficially occupied.

/40: 21 July 1899
Copy of letter to Mr John Victor, Edinburgh Village, Rio Berbice, British Guiana, from Thomas Earle, Allerton Towers, Woolton, Liverpool, announcing a decision not to let the Plantation Hanover.

/41: n.d. c.1899
Letter to William Carter from William Campbell sending rough draft of the contract.

/42: n.d. c.1899
Minutes of Agreement respecting sale of one third Plantation Hanover on River Berbice (hand-written).

/43: n.d. c.1899
Torn letter regarding payment and shares concerning Plantation Hanover.

/44: n.d. c.1899
Miscellaneous (envelope, scraps of paper, etc).


/1: 1728-25 July 1743
Letters and papers re: the appointment of the Rev J Stanley to the Rectory of Winwick.

/4: 14 Nov 1778
Letter to Mrs Hardman Earle, Allerton from her niece, Jane Earle (daughter of Thomas Earle, Liverpool).
Apologies for the delay in her mother's and herself's visit to Allerton. Relates the news that "Captain Dawson of Wavertree has taken a french East India man, worth above 300.000 and carry'd her into the Downs, he has likewise taken a St Domingo man worth 2500. All this belongs entirely to the Capn & his wife's father". Includes a detailed list of the cargo of salt petre, muslin, silk, coffee, tea and a packet of "sundry things supposed to be diamonds etc". [NB The French East Indiaman taken by Captain Dawson was the Carnatic with a value of £135,000, and the richest prize ever taken by a Liverpool privateer.]

/5: 18 May -9 June 1781
Letters to William Earle from the Earl of Derby concerning his uncle Stanley's death and expressing his willingness to act as Executor of his uncle's will. [2 Items]

/6: 11 Jan 1783
Letter to William Earle, Redcross Street, Liverpool, from Mrs S Stanley, Bath, re: domestic matters.

/7: 3 Feb 1783
Letter to Mrs William Earle from Mrs Stanley, Bath, her sister, re: family news. Refers to "the Harlequins prize being deem'd a lawfull one".

/8: 2 Oct -23 Oct 1785
Letters to Thomas Earle from Maria Earle, Bank, Lymm, his cousin, shortly before their marriage.

/9: 19 Feb 1786-27 July 1788
Letter to William Earle from Lady Jane Stanley, regarding domestic matters only, and to Thomas Earle giving him £100 for his sons William and Thomas.

/10: 10 Apr 1795
Letter to Thomas Earle of Spekelands from Samuel Hodgson, Nantwich, re: William Earle as a boy. Refers also to the Leghorn House and the "Sussanah" at Gibraltar.

/11: n.d. c.1800
Letter to Mrs Stanley from A Johnson, re: general news and gossip.

/12: 8 Sept 1809- 2 Mar 1810
Letters to Mr Fitchett from Thomas Earle, Spekelands,mentions business affairs, and Mr Fitchett's business dealings with Mr Stanley.


B/3: 12 Sept 1870
Report on plantation operation from William Russell to a Mr Cowie. Covers in great detail all aspects of
plantation operation c1840-1870. Includes Russell's background and training. The conditions of coolies and other labourers, wage levels, health etc.

B/4: 1-2 Jan 1863/64
Correspondence from James Baines & Co (Black Ball Line) to S, T & Co re: shipments of coolies from Calcutta to Demerara. (two letters)

D/B/176A/D/1,3-4: DEMERARA; 1795-1823

D/1: c1795-1812
Inventory of Documents - re: a Court case, Gabriel James and Richard Stevens v Proprietors of Cottage Plantation, Demerara. June 1816. Contains copies of c50 documents including mortgage agreements, Bills of Lading, Estate Accounts, various correspondence, plantation inventories (including lists of slaves), Monthly returns etc.

D/2: June 1807
Mortgage Agreement vs James & Stevens & Messrs Geo. Bramwell and W Henry Addison. [Omitted from the microfilm edition.]

D/3: 1801-1807
Also signed affidavit of witness Thos. Hughes and other documents relating to above Mortgage Agreement (copy included here).

D/4: May 1823
Copy of open letter from Director General of the Rivers and Depending Districts of Esseynebo and Demerara - re: disposal of lots of land.

Watercolour drawing of buildings on plantation, Cane Grove, Mahaica Creek, Demerara, property of George Book, Esq. [Details featured on back cover and opposite page 7].

SAS/37A/1/3: 27 Feb 1808
1/3 Letter re: Slave Trade to Samuel Sandbach, from Wm McBeins, Demerary.

D/B/1F/1/1-20: Letters from Henry Cobham, son ofGeorge Ashworth Cobham, Senior, OF Cobham Park, Warren County, Pennsylvania, USA to his cousin, John Cobham in Liverpool

1/1: 10 May 1863
With news of Henry's brother George Ashworth Cobham jnr. in the Civil War and invites John Cobham [henceforth JC] to spend his honeymoon with them in the USA.

1/2: 12 June 1865
Relates how he has been charged for removing the body of his brother George and reburying him at home.

1/3: 10 Sept 1865
Continues the story of 2, and other affairs relating to his brother.

1/4: 17 Sept 1866
Discusses a business venture he is thinking of, concerning black walnut timber asking what it would be worth in Liverpool.

1/5: 26 Nov 1866
Expresses disappointment at the figures John Cobham has sent him.

1/6: 8 June 1867
Relates to his affairs in England and asks J C to take the trusteeship.

1/7: 3 Jan 1868
Asks for the English rents to be paid in gold.

1/8: 27 Mar 1868
On his English affairs.

1/9: 27 Aug 1868
Thanks J C for the gift of a gun, a little on his English affairs and then talks of contemporary American politics.

1/10: 26 Dec 1868
On his English affairs.

1/11: 5 Aug 1869
Describes his journey from New York to Warren including a railway accident.

1/12: 29 Aug 1869
Written from the steamship "Britannia" describing the voyage from England. (It is dated later than 11,
but seems to precede it in events).

1/13: 6 Sept 1869
On his English affairs (the signature is removed).

1/14: 24 Sept 1869
On another idea for a business venture, this time coal .

1/15: 12 Oct 1869
Asks J C not to give up trusteeship and a little on politics.

1/16: 4 Nov 1869
On his English affairs and more on the coal mining venture, begins by saying that the English fossils
J C has offered him are very rare in the USA.

1/17: 26 Nov 1869
Advises him not to invest in the Erie Railroad or any other US stocks as he predicts a "terrible collapse here
before this time next year", and on his English affairs.

1/18: 23 Apr 1873
An angry letter on his English affairs.

1/19: 8 Aug 1882
Informs him of his cousin Georgina's death.

1/20: ? After 1870
Latter parts of a letter answering questions about his family.


2/1: 16 Mar 1861
Refers to J C's visit to Australia 'unsuccessful' business advice - George Ashworth Cobham, Senior [henceforth G A C] absent from England 29 years, has large farm, sons are mechanics, "command high prices" .... "although we occupy a distinguished position in society here - yet, all men have to work in some way". Pros and cons of emigration to USA and Canada. Oil find 20 miles away. Advises J C against oil prospecting. Family news.

2/2: 5 Oct 1862
Refers to success in business of J C - dangers of 'pleasurable amusement and the bottle' had to attend church and be normal in order to succeed; refers to G A C's new house, fruit yield; George, a soldier, (son of G A C) has had typhoid; has been in a skirmish; refers to battle near Sharpsburgh; other Civil War news reflections on slaves and President's conduct seems to have the confidence of all but 'the Government has been to lenient ... avoiding any certain enactment against slavery' Refers to history of cruelty to slaves sickness has done more than the sword'. Henry (G A C's son) went to war as a volunteer, feels that God will see that the union prevails and that the black race is liberated; enquires re: price of damask.

2/3: 26 Dec 1862-7 Jan 1863
Difficulty of labour owing to war; railway work and oil; rising prices; George's war experiences; winter weather; Lincoln's proclamation freeing slaves in Rebel States; Davis's proclamation to 'shoot down the Negro like dogs'; " it does seem unaccountable to me why the inhabitants of Old England show a partiality for the Southern [Confederacy] .... the South has for years shut both her eyes and her ears to the sufferings of the poor negro"; refers to sleighing in snow and lumbering.

2/4: 13 Mar 1863
Refers to ball in new house attended by judges, members of Congress and Assembly etc. Congratulations
to J C on proposed marriage. George now a colonel.

2/5: 8 Sept 1863
Largely re: Rossendale estate. Has received news of J C's marriage.

2/6: 23 Mar 1864
Re: J C's enquiry 'whether Confederate Bonds are good to make an investment in' - 'Confederate Bonds are worthless.' 'You only receive in England a one sided account from the South and by those interested in the South' .... 'I consider there is no doubt the South will be completely whipped.' Refers to recent visit by J C.

2/7: 8 Aug 1864
George shot at battle of Peach Tree Creek - details of death and burial and his wife's misconduct. Refers to enclosed photos of George & 'Colours of the Regiment'.

2/8: 13 Mar 1865
Request for family portraits and busts once at Fearns Hall from creditors; death of George; his wife was unfaithful; Freddy perhaps not his.

2/8a: 13 Mar 1865
with:- Statement & list of creditors attached to 8.

2/9: 21 Apr 1865
To Philip F Curry - re: Rossendale estate; news of surrender of Richmond and assassination of Lincoln.

Will of Mary Bridge of Liverpool widow 1766; £10 to "my black Negro Man Thomas per year for life"

Catalogue of Cropper Archive


2/1: 1 Aug 1790
Apprenticeship Indenture: James Cropper, son of Thomas Cropper of Winstanley, to William Rathbone and Robert Benson of Liverpool, Merchants, at £20 p.a. for four years, penal sum £100.

2/2: 1 Sept 1799
Minutes of Agreement: James Cropper and Thomas Benson as Cropper and Benson. 5 heads, equal capital. (Quaker Style)

2/3: 22 Mar 1800
Dissolution of Partnership Deed: Rathbone, Benson and Cropper, Merchants. (Reference to articles, 15th October 1795. (Quaker Style).

2/4: 17 Sept 1807
'Correspondence with dock Trustees': Proposals for new Act of Parliament intended to extend powers of the
Trustees (ref to West India and American Associations, unsigned, 1 double sheet) (draft).

2/5: 10 Jan 1810
Letter: John Foster, Liverpool to James Cropper, Liverpool: Previous letter to Mr Cropper not meant personally.

2/6: 31 Jan 1838
Dissolution of Partnership Circular (printed): Cropper, Benson and Co.

2/7: 26 June 1838
Letter: President of American Chamber of Commrce, John D Thornley, to John Cropper - presenting piece of plate in acknowledgement of services of J C as Treasurer.


3/1: 10 Nov 1825
Letter: William Edgeworth, Stockton, Co Durham, to James Cropper - Re: J C's ingenious plan of making merchandise flow as water. (Full copy) (Quaker Style)

3/2: 23 Apr 1829
Pamphlet: Remarks on the Use of the Stationery or Locomotive Engine on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway - Investigation carried out by James Walker and John U Rastrick (J R's copy from James Cropper). Includes information on capital, expense of ropes, locomotive engines going over Rainhill, general observations. (Quaker Style)
Letter: James Cropper, Liverpool to John U Rastrick, Engineer, Stourbridge, Worcs written on dorse of the above pamphlet - I send the accompanying remarks and should be glad to know whether on commendation there is not some error about the rope which is a most important item in this mode of conveyance. Your reports are printed but not yet published - if any error appeared a rope might yet be affixed before publication. We have had much discussion on the subject but decided nothing yet. I have no doubt the stationary engine is cheapest, safest and most expeditions and least injurious to the roads, but there are difficulties which I think could be overcome but only practice can prove it. I fear the roads would not stand over immense commerce at ten miles an hour without more injury than you have anticipated. This can only be proved by trial. After all I have heard I should like to try both stationary and locomotive engines for four to six miles at each and work the middle with horses until we prove which of the other two modes is best.

3/3: 17 Mar 1830
Printed Statement by James Cropper: The Liverpool and Manchester Railway - Information on probable extent of commerce. Recent improvements in locomotive engines, reduced cost of conveyance enhancing the value of railway property. Several engines of same construction as the Rocket at work on the railway. Details of costs for goods conveyed by rail in comparison with those via the Mersey eg. 2 shillings more per ton by water than rail. (Figures quoted).

3/4: 29 Sept 1830
Letter: James Cropper to his cousin Martha Fletcher "On the melancholy end of Mr Huskisson I may remark
that it is most extraordinary that the great advocate of the unfettered exertions of man should be the only one to lose his life of the 500,000 who were present. In the midst of the greatest triumph of science we are thus taught to remember that there is a power in whose hands are all things."

4/1: 27 Jan 1798
Letter: Lafayette to Thomas Clarkson - Lafayette's wife still suffering effects of an earlier term of imprisonment. Opposition from French Aristocrats and Jacobin leaders to abolition of slave trade and to enfranchisement of negroes not being carried out gradually. As a result opponents using threat of anarchy as weapon in their argument. Mention made that Pitt not getting the support in the matter that Lafayette feels should be due. Expresses hopes that Maritime Powers will make peace and to atone for calamities will assent a formal article to stop the slave trade and restore 'Rights of Men' to negroes.

4/2: 20 May 1822
Letter: William Wilberforce to James Cropper - To arrange a meeting between the two.

4/3: 23 Oct 1822
Letter: William Wilberforce to James Cropper - Apologies for not replying to James Cropper's [henceforth JC] letter earlier. Mentions a society J C has established and agrees that care should be taken over those allowed to become members.

4/4: 3 Sept 1826
Letter: Maria Edgeworth to James Cropper - Reply to J C's request for information about names, shares and
accounts. As M E not at home she can't supply him with it but tells him of the number of her shares in the Liverpool Railroad. Suggests that due to great amount of business J C has to attend to that her accounts be placed in the hands of one of his brokers or a secretary. Doesn't want to purchase more shares in Cropper firm because of lack of money.

4/5: 1 Aug 1829
Letter: Elizabeth Fry to James Cropper - Thanks for letter which made her feel more hopeful in the midst
of the present storm.

4/6: n.d.
Letter: Thomas Clarkson to Ann Alexander - Sorrow at J C's return to London from the country. Details of journey to undertake.


5/1: 5 June 1809
Obituary of David Barclay, grandson of Robert Barclay of Urie, author of the "Apology for the Quakers" who was left an estate in Jamaica and emancipated all the slaves (costing £10,000) [from the "Morning Chronicle"] (Extract).

5/2: January 1812
Letter: James Stephen, Kensington Grove (London) to James Cropper - thanks for the paper he is returning. Feels the "Chronicle" doesn't have enough circulation and only reaches one proprietor in fifty. He suggests their opponents have used bribery or intimidation to gain unwilling promises of neutrality by either excluding articles on both sides or sparingly inserting them. However, T S doesn't feel there is anything immoral or unusual in addressing the proprietors as a body by advertisements as the India House is doing. Their cause would be furthered more by one advertisement in the Old and New Times than by weeks of essays in the "Morning Chronicle and Press" because many of the proprietors are men of the Government Party. He will be willing to pay for the advert.

5/3: 10 Jan 1826
Letter: Maria Edgeworth, Edgeworthstown, Ireland, to James Cropper - Thanks him for ordering the purchase of 5 shares. Asks him to settle the account when convenient.

5/4: 18 Jan 1828
Letter: Zachary Macaulay, London, to James Cropper. Encloses several pages of a Report to be used at a
meeting so that J C can see the tone they are forced to use. He feels that due to uncertainty in the support they can depend, upon meetings would be a good idea and also possible petitioning. Awaiting J C's thoughts on petitioning before deciding and hopes the reply will come before the Committee meets on the following Tuesday to discuss the matter. Points out that the general feeling is that there will be a Tory administration with Huskisson deserting his present friends to join the Duke of Wellington, Peel and Lord Melville.

5/5: 28 July 1831
Letter: George Stephens, Kings Arms York, to James Cropper re the abolition of slavery (the principles involved). George Stephens's anti "Slavery Creed" and the difficulty of putting it into a form acceptable to twenty gentlemen - mainly because he feels no more than twelve know their own mind on the subject i.e. emancipation. n example of his plan - magistrates to take over responsibility from the owner. Feels men can agree about a principle but not about details.

5/6: 11 Feb 1832
Letter: Zachary Macaulay to James Cropper - Marriage of Margaret & Edward in 1832. Wants to send J C a small part of the work he's trying to finish before leaving town in 8 days.

5/7: 19 August 1822 Description with illustration of the Spanish Schooner, Josefa Maracayera, captured by Capt. Wolrige of the Driver in the sight of Benin on the coast of Africa with 216 male slaves on board c.1822

6/1: 1800
William Arrowsmith, Merchant, of Liverpool to James Cropper, James Ryley, Thomas Cropper junior and Robert Benson - Indenture of William Arrowsmith's Share and Interest in the concern of William Arrowsmith and Company.

6/2: 1800
William Arrowsmith to James Cropper, James Ryley, Thomas Cropper Junior and Robert Benson - assignment of a Lease of Premises on Upper Islington, Rent £373.

6/3: Nov 1807
Inventory of sundries at the mill, Upper Islington.

6/4: 13 Nov 1807
Thomas Wolfe of Stoke-upon-Trent, manufacturer of Earthenware with James Cropper and William Arrowsmith of Liverpool - Deed of Defeazance and Covenants on Terms in respect of the Lease of the Steam Engine Mill and premises at Upper Islington.


7/1: 1806-1807
School Bill from John Ecroyd (East Edge, East Lancs)

7/2: 1811
Poem: Esther Flounders on lock of her mother's hair.

7/3: 3 June ?
Letter: M Benson of Lodge Lane to Esther Flounders acceptance of invitation to tea, refers to bereavement of Esther Flounders.

7/4: ?
Epitaph - for Osgood Hanbury's wife. (Quaker pharmacist family?)

7/5: 14 Aug 1829
Letter: James Cropper I, Dingle Bank to James Cropper II and 'Sally' - family sentiments. Refers to the well.

7/6: 1830
Letter: James Cropper II to Sarah, Annie and John (his three younger sisters and brother), including hopes they will soon get a letter and Queen Mary of Scotland's slept in the bed Mama was to sleep in at the Old Hall, Buxton. J C going to bathe with his grandfather and learn to swim.

7/7: 14 Dec 1818
Letter: Cropper family to Thomas Cropper, c/o Westzynthias Gil & Co., Marseille, France - personal, commercial and family news - (very interesting)

Letter: Ann Ecroyd to John Cropper - a bedcover to J C as a wedding gift.

7/9: 1851
Letter: Ann Cropper to John Cropper - Thanks for not joining rifle corps due to consideration for A C and his father.

7/10: 11 Jan 1857
Letter: W Rathbone to John Cropper - Sofa.

7/11: 1818
Account: Impressions in the minds of Prince Gallitzin and Emperor Alexander of Russia of the commencement of Religious Impressions.

7/12: 6 July 1834
Letter: James Cropper Junior to J W Cropper, Mama, Papa and Sally; donkey and carriage; J C is missing his family - he is at Birklands, Kendal.

7/13: 8 Jan 1839
Letter: John Cropper to Helen McCorquodale Temperance Society; dislike of ladies public speaking; second coming of the Lord.

7/14: 16 Dec 1840
Letter: John Cropper to Helen McCorquodale - Servants' Bible Class at Dingle Bank; J C not found letter from H C's cousin Mr Moor; J C enclosed account of last days of one of the best men he knew; J C been reading 8th, 9th, and 10th verses of John 13.


8/1: 2 Apr 1829
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge of Birmingham. Expresses fears that certain Ministers of the Society are not living in a fitting way, e g. over indulgence in food and drink - cites the example of two members who are not performing their duty properly. Reference to Catholic question and a Bill to be introduced by Brougham. Aiding of missionary exertions.

8/2: 22 June 1830
Letter: James Cropper to Eliza and Joseph Sturge. Rejoices that the missionary cause is to be discussed
at the Society's yearly meeting. Even if the Society decides not to give financial help to the cause individual members may decide to do so. J C fears, however, that many individuals in the Society will not be willing to make the necessary sacrifices. Methodists do not have enough room for all the people who wish to attend their meetings and J C feels that if they built three or four meeting houses they would be filled. But if the Society built one it would not be filled; not because of Doctrines, but because members do not live in the profession they make. Lamentation is of little good in changing this but walking in the light will in time lead to them seeing more light.

8/3: 9 Jan 1833
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge. (Cropper, Benson & Co & Sturge) - Business loss between three parties and how it should be settled. J C hopes this can come between the three parties, i.e. the loss divided into three but if not arbitrations will be called in.

8/4: 1833
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Business loss and possible unpleasant affair likely to occur between J S and Cropper, Benson & Co. J C feels that Cropper, Benson & Co would win a law suit and that J S would be advised to accept a three way divide of the loss or to refer the matter to arbitration. J C feels the former would be preferable.

8/5: 24 Jan 1833
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - House for whom Cropper, Benson & Co acted at this point refuse arbitration but will pay £250 toward the loss. J C feels both sides should agree so as to avoid a law suit. J C points out Cropper, Benson & Co and friends are confident of winning a law suit and no less anxious for different mode of settlement but are leaving it to J C to decide what action to take. J C advises deferment of petitions to Parliament concerning reform.

8/6: 23 May 1833
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - J C assures J S of high opinion he still has of him. Breakfast party.

8/7: 10 Aug 1833
Letter: James Cropper to Eliza and Joseph Sturge Resolution of the business cases in an acceptable way. Prayer meetings held by J C and how they have been conducted so far. Establishment of a school which will partly teach agricultural skills. The soil at the House is good for such purposes. John and his family prepare to stay at Dingle for a short time.

8/8: 14 Sept 1834
Letter: James Cropper to Eliza and Joseph Sturge. Baby John has recovered from illness; J C invited the
Hoyles and Nields to stay at the Dingle. Equipping of school with ovens; flagging and slating in progress at the school. Building of railway near the school - J C bought wheels and axles for three waggons at a reduced price - 30/- instead of 120/-. J C feels he is doing God's Will and wishes that more men would endeavour to do so. Mentions fact that he feels he could have underpaid a woman for making a suit.

8/9: 13 Jan 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Eliza and Joseph Sturge J C's cousin's illness - leeches and a blister used. J J Gurneys Peculiarities Last Edition - feels defenders of old faith taking wrong turning - J C glad to be away
from the controversy - has comforted J C. Punishment of a boy at the school and his forgiveness at the request of the other boys. Thought as to whether singing should be part of worship at the school. J C unlikely to be able to attend second meeting at Preston due to his cousin's ill health.

8/10: 19 Jan 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Eliza and Joseph Sturge ... thoughts on the election and the hope that the Whigs will be strong enough to prevent Tory mischief. J C's cousin gradually improving. J C approves of J J Gurney's Book and mentions a pamphlet "Appeal to Scripture" by Abigail Hodgson. Holy Spirit Doctrine mentioned. Mentions 1821 as first time J C wrote to Wilberforce. Hopes to make numbers in school up to ten as soon as suitable boys apply. Cooking and Housemaids work are taught in the school. Feels that judicious and concilliatory course will lead to all being made right in the Society.

8/11: 27 Jan 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Eliza Sturge. J C intends to visit Liverpool and be at the meeting of Croppers and Waterhouses. Issac Crewdson's "Beacon" and A Hodgson's "Appeal to Scripture" - J C criticises both for not waiting long enough for Holy Spirits Guidance. Wants to meet J C to discuss points of criticism - Edward Cropper interested in this aspect. Thoughts on differing views held by members of the Society - J C feels that taking of the daily cross and seeking guidance of the Holy Spirit are ways of sanctification rather than just accepting true doctrine of salvation by faith. Pleasure over school at Penketh, e.g. living expenses fairly low. Hopes that original intention of school will be maintained.

8/12: 28 Feb 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - J C been ill but recovered. Death of Eliza Sturge.

8/13: 5 Mar 1835
Letter: James Cropper (part from Martha Fletcher) to Joseph Sturge - ... state of the Society, most of J C's relations and friends lean toward Isaac Crewdson's views but J C leans the other way on most points. J C approves of Dr Hancock's reply to J C based on scripture. Vagrant Act - J C opposed to but which Colonists want. Martha Fletcher - sympathising over death of Eliza.

8/14: 10 Mar 1833
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - "Reformer" about to be published and J C is glad because he feels too few religious people are Editors of Liberal papers. J C is falling into debt as difficult to sell railway shares at the time. Proposed conferences - J C feels should be a family party at first. J C complying with John Croppers wish that he should look more closely at faith and what is said in New Testament. J C feels faith and good works are both of importance as are scriptures and the Holy Spirit. J C feels he cannot join either of the sides in the Society - Orthodox not contending the matter on scripture grounds and he will not act with other party therefore he disapproves of their proceedings. John Cropper, Anne Cropper and their baby have all improved their health.

8/15: 5 Apr 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Divide within the Society. J C feels both sides would benefit from self examination. J C sad that A Canoll took part in a public meeting for worship. Has copy of I Wilkinson's sermon for J S Failure of wood pipes - enquiring about iron or lead pipes instead J C feels comforted due to strong confidence that if seeking God by unceasing prayer, will find him - J C now feels hope, he didn't previously, that turbulation can be overcome.

8/16: 19 Apr 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Twelve representatives elected at yearly meeting including Robert Benson and Ryley. Conflict over whether Committee to visit Hardshaw East monthly meeting should be appointed. J C against idea because of lack of suitable people to form such a Committee. Committee passed and J C is member. J C received letter from I Easton - dissatisfied with the "Beacon". J C agrees with his sentiments and hopes that people on both sides of the argument within the Society will examine themselves to see if they are living true to their profession. Four South African newspapers mention public meeting to be held at Exeter Hall and American delegates. West Indians ready to aid Buxton put slave trade down by force in hope of higher price of sugar. Accounts from Thompson encouraging.

8/17: 29 Apr 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - J C's news on opposition to Issac Crewdson and his book. Letter from George Croasfield - three points about J C's behaviour, etc. J C not appointed as representative to yearly meeting but as he is to be in London about that time J C suggests a few friends meet to discuss matters. Reformer newspaper too radical for J C's views. No postage paid on ship letters.

8/18: 20 June 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Letters from T Thornely and Lord Sandon about slave trade; stoppage of payment or enquiry. J S and reassembling of delegates. Fate of the Quarterly Monthly Committee and its answer to queries - should it act in conjunction with Y M Committee or be dissolved? J C had no opening to bring in his case. Charge brought against Margaret Benson by the Elders.

8/19: 30 Jan 1835
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Building extensions to the house. New large room for e.g. evening reading, parties and meals for the poor. Cultivation of land around the school - 16 acres to provide work but "sadly immoral neighbourhood". J C asked to take the chair at missionary meeting to raise money for education in the West Indies.

8/20: 29 Feb 1836
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Conduct of G T. Agricultural distress - solution, J C feels, lies in
more people living better - gives one case as an example (figures quoted) Too much land for the population. J C thinking of writing to the papers about Agricultural distress and the remedy.

8/21: 9 Apr 1836
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Appropriation of J C's property (large part to his grandson James; two thirds of remainder to his sons and Eliza's share to Orphan Schools).

8/22: 1 May 1836
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - J C will be pleased to see J S but doesn't want J S to neglect his duties in order to do this. J C doesn't like G and A Jones going around "preaching up" division within the Society. J C feels charity between those holding differing views is a good thing. Samuel Lloyd's news on the "Beacon" and possible disciplinary action by the Society against him for this.

8/23: 9 Nov 1836
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - Religious differences within the Society. J C questions whether individuals who hold different views from the Society can remain acceptable ministers. Elisha Bates going to publish some old unpublished papers belonging to G Fox to use against him. J C wants to hold family meetings to encourage one another in the love and devotion of God, etc. Mentions J S's hazardous, arduous engagement.

8/24: 15 Nov 1838
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - West Indies Land Company - points J C would like to see cleared. J S's plan - J C to buy five shares. J C urging J S to come to stay with him in order to have a rest. J C feels more and more attached to the principles of the Society and of late feels more comforted by Silent Meetings than previously.

8/25: 29 Jul 1839
Letter: James Cropper to Joseph Sturge - J C been to Harrogate due to ill health. J C been bled with leeches and blistered - trouble with his head. J C would like to republish I Woolman's Journal. Mention of proposal to end slavery and slave trade by giving up use of slave produce. Vacancy in school for one boy - J S has recommended someone.


9/1: Oct 1857
General statement of the affairs of the Liverpool Borough Bank.

9/2: 7 Dec 1857
Circular letter: call on shareholders for £5 per share.

9/3: 25 Feb 1858
Report on the proceedings of the meetings of share-holders of the Liverpool Borough Bank (pamphlet).

9/4: 26 Aug 1858
Lancashire Summer Assizes, Scott & Another v Dixon (managing director) John Cropper's copy.

9/5: 15 Dec 1858
Letter: John Cropper to Thomas Sellar (managing director) - Declining to attend meeting of share holders.

9/6: 9 Dec 1858
Report of the liquidators to the shareholders of the Liverpool Borough Bank.

9/7: 14 Nov 1859
Letter: J B Brancker, Chairman of the Liquidators, to John Cropper - Remmeration of liquidators and request for attendance at a meeting.

9/8: 3 Jan 1860
Letter: Thomas Sellar (managing director) to shareholders of the Liverpool Borough Bank - comments made to Mr Kershaw relating to bank's capital.

9/9: Dec 1860
Report of the liquidators to shareholders.

9/10: 20 Dec 1860
Newspaper extract from Daily Post - liquidation.

9/11: Dec 1859
Report of the liquidators to shareholders.


10/1: 26 Jan 1791
Margaret Cropper to James Cropper, general letter to her brother.

10/2: 1791
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, general letter to her son.

10/3: 12 Aug 1791
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter to her son on health matters.

10/4: 1 Feb 1792
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter to her son containing advice on health matters.

10/5: 1791
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter containing advice to James on his health.

10/6: 3 May 1792
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter containing information on Brother Binn's (brother-in-law) situation.

10/7: 27 June 1792
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter concerning Rebecca Cropper's health.

10/8: 17 Dec 1792
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter warning about the dangers of conversing on religious and political matters.

10/9: 1792
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter containing religious advice and news of a visit from the doctor.

10/10: 1792
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter containing general advice and news with note from Thomas Cropper to Fanny.

10/11: 7 Jan 1793
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, health note from Thomas Cropper to J Bile concerning food.

10/12: 1793
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter regarding shirt measurements and shopping.

10/13: 1793
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter warning about old and young.

10/14: 8 Jan 1793
Margaret Cropper to James Cropper, letter concerning visit to Lathom.

10/15: 2 Feb 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter concerning farming, commerce and health.

10/16: 3 Feb 1795
Robert Benson to James Cropper, letter concerning commerce and James' arrival at Manchester: trade: barge contents to Manchester: shipping to New York.

10/17: 6 Feb 1795
Robert Benson to James Cropper, letter concerning commerce.

10/18: 10 Feb 1795
Thomas Cropper to Robert Benson, letter concerning barley.

10/19: 16 Feb 1795
Robert Benson to James Cropper, letter concerning commercial matters and directing James' travels.

10/20: 17 Feb 1795
Thomas Cropper to Robert Benson, letter referring to barley and coal.

10/21: 20 Feb 1795
Thomas Cropper to Robert Benson, letter referring to barley and coal.

10/22: 24 Feb 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to barley, also estates at Fernhead.

10/23: 8 Mar 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to James' travels, also barley.

10/24: 21 Mar 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to barley and malting.

10/25: 16 Apr 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to commercial instructions.

10/26: 22 May 1795
Robert Benson to James Cropper, letter, written from London, referring to Pearson Walton, commerce and health.

10/27: 12 Jun 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to family illness.

10/28: 23 Jun 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to a visit to Lydiate, also Meeting House at Bickerstaff.

10/29: 26 Jun 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter ordering flowers, also warning from mother about bathing.

10/30: 9 Aug 1795
Thomas Cropper to James Cropper, letter informing him of Sarah's death and the funeral arrangements.

10/31: 19 Aug 1795
Rebecca Cropper to James Cropper, letter warning of the dangers of too much bathing.

10/32: 21 May 1819
James Cropper to John and Edward Cropper in France, letter containing solicitations and containing a reference to his brother Thomas.

10/33: 19 Jun 1820
John Wakefield to James Cropper, Lodge Lane, letter referring to John's visit to Sedgwick, giving approval of such with a view to courtship.

10/34: 23 Oct 1820
John Wakefield to James Cropper, letter referring to John's engagement and marriage settlement.

10/35: 11 June 1820
Ann Wakefield to Mary Cropper, letter written before her marriage to John, expressing her apprehension about her own abilities.

10/36: 21 Mar 1821
John Wakefield to James Cropper, letter giving approval to Edward's and Isabella's match.

10/37: 31 Aug 1821
Isabella Wakefield to Mary Cropper, letter written before her marriage to Edward.

10/38: 16 Apr 1823
Anne Cropper to Eliza Cropper, letter referring to her stay at Lodge Lane.

10/39: 22 Apr 1824
James Cropper to Martha Fletcher, letter concerning the decision to move to Dingle Bank, also the opposition to slavery and the decision to write a pamphlet on such.

10/40: 13 May 1824
Edward Cropper to James Cropper, letter containing news of Dingle Bank, also sketch plan of Dingle Bank.

10/41: 1824
Anne Cropper to Eliza Cropper, going to Ireland, general letter containing news from home.

10/42: 21 Nov 1824
Anne and John Cropper to Eliza Cropper in Ireland, letter mainly concerning family matters but contains brief mention of slavery and description of the poor in Ireland by Eliza.

10/43: 26 Nov 1824
Edward Cropper to James Cropper in Ireland, letter containing report of financial transactions and McCullough's lectures against slavery.

10/44: 10 May? 1824
Anne Cropper to Eliza Cropper and James Cropper in London, general family letter.

10/45: 31 Oct 1824
Edward Cropper to James Cropper in Ireland, letter referring to the setting up of the East India Sugar Department, building at Dingle Bank.

10/46: 17 Nov 1824
Edward Cropper to James Cropper in Ireland, letter referring to cotton prices with the loss of the Sea Island crop, due to hurricanes.

10/47: 24 Nov 1824
Edward Cropper to James Cropper in Ireland, letter asking whether James can aid the railroad committee's deputation to Ireland.

10/48: 12 Apr 1826
James Cropper to Eliza Cropper, letter on his thoughts on the "Colony" at the Dingle.

10/49: 15 Apr 1826
James Cropper to Eliza Cropper, while in London, visit to Jansons; wishes to be back at Dingle Bank.

10/50: 12 Jan 1827
James Cropper to John and Edward Cropper, thoughts on his apprenticeship; the duty of the rich.

10/51: 18 Nov 1827
James Cropper to Isabella Cropper thanking her for her last letter.

10/52: ?
James Cropper to his children, letter referring to Isabella's stroke.

10/53: ?
Isabella Cropper to James Cropper, letter on the need to persevere, to trust in God, and to pray.

10/54: 3 Sept 1828
James Cropper to Eliza and Edward Cropper, letter concerning Isabella's conversion to Calvinism.

10/55: 30 Apr 1828
Mary Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to Matthew leaving for Calcutta; the decoration of John Cropper's house; the lease of lodgings in Carpenter's Buildings.

10/56: May 1829
Mary Cropper to James Cropper, letter in which James is chastised for taking shirts intended as night shirts; description of house in Rake Lane; family health; unspecified charity.

10/57: 30 Aug 1829
Unsigned letter, headed, "To my dear friend", containing following:- Withdrawal of subscription to infirmary, plan to sponsor young physician to serve the poor, and give deserving young man experience. Theodore W's lack of response to offer, later made to W Rathbone's son.

10/58: 9 Aug 1831
James Cropper to Eliza Cropper, letter, containing the following:- Family health; contract agreed for construction of orphan house; J & J Ecroyd's debts; proof of non-existence of slavery on indigo plantations; railway profits; help to be given to Methodists; infirmary; scheme to give allotments of land to poor in Leicester; proposed expenditure for 1832; route and cost of new railway into town.

10/59: 8 Sept 1829
Unsigned letter, headed, "To my dear friend", containing remarks on Theodore; possibility of withdrawal of attention from railway; water carriers changing over to railway; Dr Hancock/Theodore.

10/60: 27 Jan 1831
James Cropper to John, Edward and Eliza Cropper, letter on J Cropper's religious duty; enlistment of support from bankers and brokers, etc., to slavery petition; hire of music hall.

10/61: 23 Aug 1831
John and Mary Cropper to James, c/o Joseph Cropper, letter on family health; John's efforts to raise money for poor sufferers of flood; railway traffic/profit; loss of Rothsay Castle.

10/62: 29 Aug 1831
Mary Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to monthly meeting; visit to Indian chief and Methodist missionary; small donations; advice given against Buxton plan.

10/63: 25 Jul 1832
Edward Cropper to James Cropper, letter referring to Baptist Missionary meeting; anti-slavery committe -J C disappointed at attendance; A E Fowler in debt.

10/64: 21 Jan 1835
Eliza Sturge to James Cropper, letter containing directions to the disposal of her property on her death-child to inherit eventually, if it lives, otherwise Joseph to have a stewardship over it; on Joseph's death E S suggests that property be used to established an institution to benefit negroes.

10/65: n.d.
Unsigned extact on the miseries of unemployment.

10/66: 8 Nov 1830
Margaret Cropper II (MacCaulay) to Eliza Sturge, letter sympathising with Eliza concerning her brother, wants Eliza to write an account of how Edward and Anne are; Margaret worried about her Uncle Babington who is ill.

10/67: 19 Dec 1830
Margaret Cropper II to Eliza Sturge, letter referring to John being given a living in the church by the Lord Chancellor; illness of both Margaret's father and her Uncle Babington; agreement with Eliza's suggestion that John's wife write a 'Sketch of life' of their sister; mention of Sierra Leone.

10/68: 1 Aug 1833
Margaret Cropper II to Eliza Sturge, Eliza going abroad with a group of people, including Thomas Ryley. Wilberforce's death after an illness; Edward staying with Eliza until she sails; Margaret to be 'blessed with a child' before long.

10/69: 5 May 1834
Margaret Cropper II to Eliza Sturge, Eliza in Aberystwith. James Cropper and Martha Fletcher living comfortably together; John Wilkinson to dine with James; illness of Anne's baby; wedding party; comments on strangeness of Eliza not being at Dingle anymore since her marriage; possible loss of Elizabeth's foot.

10/70: 24 Jul 1834
Margaret Cropper II to Eliza Sturge, illness of Margaret and Edward - later with Scarletina. Anne and the children recently returned from Wales; orphans pleased with books Eliza sent; Margaret going to stay at Temple and then with Eliza in Birmingham.


11/1: c.1815
Portrait: miniature water colour of James Cropper Senior.

11/2: c.1815
Portrait: miniature water colour of Mary Cropper, his wife, (nee Brinsden).

11/3: c.1790-1800
Monthly meeting at Hardshaw - time members take up attending and miles they travel and expense quoted to support proposal that more monthly meetings be conveyed from Hardshaw to Manchester. Quotes new estimates of time, etc if suggestion is accepted. Members from Liverpool, Warrington, Ashton, Langtree and Manchester should be able to attend at either Hardshaw or Manchester according to convenience.

11/4: 16 July 1817
Letter: John Dockray, Hareholme, to James Cropper Snr: sketch for school and small dwelling above it (sketch included). Instructions as to how it should be built.

11/5: 14 Jun 1790
Letter: Rebecca Cropper to her son James Cropper Snr: J C starting an apprenticeship; temptations he will meet in adult life and hope that he can remain virtuous. In times of weakness he should turn to God.

11/6: 9 Mar 1785
Ms. copy of open letter to Lloyd's Evening Post - a Quaker who gained part of the prizes of privateering unwittingly, against his pacifist principles, advertises in order to restore to the owners of the vessels the value of the prizes. Address given for applications: Dr E L Fox, Paris, France. Letter: French Quakers, Nismes, to E L Fox: his example left an impression on them. They hold him in great esteem. Those who don't live such virtuous lives admire his ability to do so. French Quakers hold Fox's principles and practice spiritual worship. Rejoice in being hated and despised by Catholics and Protestants for the sake of Christ. Signed - Mosalier Junior; Berrizett; Jourdan la Comte; Maregrial; De Lord.

11/7: 15 Mar 1808
Royal licence for Cropper, Benson & Co's ship Latona - bound from Liverpool to America with cargo of permitted British manufactures & goods. Commanders of British ships and war privateers not to molest the ship during present war or any occuring hostility.

11/8: 13 July 1812
Letter: Eliza Cropper to Thomas Cropper: details of proposed journey to Liverpool after visiting Leeds. Francis Thompson wants to see TC before he, FT leaves England.

11/9: 1811
Note Book: notes on French Grammar.

Certificate: James Cropper enrolled as member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool.

11/11: c.1830
Recipe for "cheap, wholesome and savoury food" consisting mainly of rice.

11/12: c.1821
Letter: W Forster, Baltimore, USA to James Cropper - JC to forward a parcel to WF's wife containing a book, a few pamphlets, printed papers, manuscripts & native American seeds all of which he feels will be free from duty. Thanks J C for forwarding previous mail.

11/13: c. 1821
Paper (8pp) (MSS) by James Cropper: studies of mind and matter in accordance with objects of 'this society' (note in pencil by Anne C) endorsed with address of T F Buxton, Spitalfields.

11/14: c. 1830

Paper (printed) on Domestic Industry (2 copies, 1 loose)

11/15: 25 Mar 1823
Pamphlet: "Declaration of the Objects of the Liverpool Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery" by William Roscoe, President, & Isaac Hodgson, Secretary.

11/16: 17 Dec 1827
Letter: M Gisborne, Calcutta to James Cropper -Mrs Corrie, wife of Archdeacon of Calcutta, and her two little girls arriving on the Duke of Lancaster. Hope that Croppers will show her kindness. Latter will be accompanied by Charles Elliott an employee in East India Company's Civil Service.

11/17: 11 July 1829
Newspaper cutting (loose) & letter written on it: James Cropper to Joseph Humphreys, Glasnevin nr Dublin "East and West India Sugar" in answer to a previous one "Slavery in the East Indies" taken from the Glasgow Courier which endeavoured to make it appear that sugar from the East Indies was raised by slaves. Writer of former article disputes this and uses quotes to back his argument.

11/18: 1829
Slave populations of West Indian Islands.

11/19: c. 1830
Printed paper - Wooden cottages near Tide Mill, Harrington.

11/20: c. 1830
Request to RC to return to Dingle Bank (in verse) signed by many members of the Cropper family.

11/21: 1833
Declaration of Anti-Slavery Convention, Philadelphia (loose, folded) (on silk).

11/22: 1832
Substance of an Address by J J Gurney, on the 'Right use and Application of Knowledge' to the 'Mechanics of Manchester'.

11/23: c. 1840
Verse: 'To MC by E Kenyon, 'on dorse', E Kenyon to her Mother.

11/24: 1832
Printed letter about Quaker Orphanage in Switzerland.

11/25: 19 Feb 1832
Letter: Marie Calame, France to Thomas Robson, 'Liverpool' (a 'Friend') - re: trusting ..... the sincere goodness and 'resolution ..... to give up the collective' for the maintenance of my great family'. TR has sent MC a letter (and help?) Refers to sister Robson and friend Zimmerlin


11/26: 13 Nov 1824
J O'Driscoll, Cork - Letter of introduction for James Cropper in Ireland.

11/27: 11 Nov 1824
T Rice (?) Limerick to J H North MP

11/28: 10 Aug 1824
Wm Givvan, Liverpool to Lord Carbery, Castle Freke, Ross Carbery, Cork

11/29: (?)
E Glengal to (James) Cropper

11/30: 28 Oct 1824
Letter: M Babington, Leicester - to James Cropper -enclosing letter from William Wilberforce: 'he approves the plan' 'our general course is creeping on .....' Please to return Mr W 's letter.

11/31: 26 Oct 1824
Copy (?) letter from W Wilberforce, Bath, to Mr B re: 'good Cropper's proposal' and congratulating Mr B for his share in 'promoting its execution'

11/32: 6 Aug 1831
Extracts from letter by J Musgrave, The Hague (Netherlands) to N P Leader, MP re: debate on Bill for encouraging public works in Ireland.

11/33: 6 Feb 1825
Letter re: Dutch and Irish Economies. J Musgrave, Turin, Italy to Dr Elmore, Clonkelty, Ireland re: Mr Cropper's plans for improving the state of Southern Ireland.

11/34: 29 Jan 1825
Same correspondents as 33:-Ms notes re: employment:- Co Waterford (refers to Mr Cropper's letter to Mr Pim) from JM as secretary of Committee in the County of Waterford. Hopes to involve the Government to encourage manufacturers to advance capital in Ireland .... at low rate of interest.

11/35: 1832/1833
Ms copy of a statement critical of the American Watermark
(a) & Colonisation Society's efforts in establishing Liberia
(b) for freed slaves.
One (a) signed William Smith, Zachary Macaulay, Samuel Thorowgood. The other (b) signed by: Joseph Reynolds, Samuel Waring, Samuel Capper, Joseph Storrs Fry, Gawen Ball, Richard Ball, Richard Ash, J Addington, James Livett, George Eaton, George Wright, Jas J Wright, Joseph Eaton. (refers to 11/36).

11/36: 2 Oct 1832
A Letter to Thomas Clarkson by James Cropper (Printed) Criticising American Colonization Society.

11/37: 1832
Letters from James Cropper (Printed) Printed Extract from larger Book(let)

11/38: 1833
Pamphlet. 'The Extinction of the American Colonization Society. The First Step to the Abolition of American Slavery.' By James Cropper (Printed).

11/39: 1829
Letters (2) to James Cropper from Mary Cropper -40 (granddaughter) and AC (daughter). Note on back
(gummed together). Mauritius, Trinidad ... East India Question.

11/41-42 : 1829
Letters (2) to James Cropper from James Cropper (grandson) and John Cropper (son) (gummed together).

11/43: 1831
Letter to 'everyone at the Dingle' from James Cropper (junior) while at Clarendon Square.

11/44: 1831
Letter to Grandmama (JC) and Grandpapa from Mary Cropper describing the journey from Dingle to Leamington.

11/45: Dec 1827
Invitation to Grandmama written by Mary Cropper.

11/46: 2 Jul 1833
Letter to JC in London from James Cropper (junior) (visit to zoo) on dorse Letter: John Cropper to his father.

11/47: 1831
Letter to Grandmama from Mary C while in Bootle.

11/48: 14 Jan 1828
Invitation to Aunt (Eliza Cropper) from James Cropper (junior).

11/49: Dec 1827
Letter to Grandma from James.

11/50: 1828
Poem 'The Negro's Complaint' sent to 'Grandpapa Cropper' from Jemmies.

11/51: 11 Jan 1828
Invitation from Mary Cropper to Grandmama to visit (on her parents wedding day).

11/52: c.1828
Poem 'The Lamb' sent to Grandpapa from Mary Mary Cropper.

11/53: 3 Aug 1832
Letter, R Huntley, Bedford Square, London to JC at Leamington re: Irish Reform Bill.

11/54: 9 Oct 1826
Printed Report 'Tropical Free-Labour Company' - Report of the Provisional Committee.

11/55: 13 Sep 1833
Copies of letters from: Sarah Mayers, C E Gilberne and Samuel Tuke (SM's brother) re: Missionary Work (on one sheet).

11/56: 11 Jun 1823
Letter R H Herschell, Woolwich to JC re: journey to Poland.

11/57: 1815
Translation of an Ukase from the Emperor Alexander to the Committee of the Clerical Schools in Russia - re: 'educating of youth to active Christianity'. (printed)

11/58: 3 Nov 1833
Letter Dr J Phillip, Capetown to JC re: effect of abolition of Slavery.

11/59: 17 Mar 1832
Letter Dr J Phillip (Capetown) to JC? re: bereavement retirement, Reform Bill and emancipation of slaves.

11/60: 17 Mar 1832
Letter Dr J Phillip, to JC? general news, abolition of slavery etc (continuation of 59).

11/61: c.1833
Printed Pamphlet 'Fruits of Colonizationism' - opposing American Colonization Society.

62-66 are all gummed together
11/62: 16 Apr 1833
Letter Richard Ball, Redland, to JC (enclosing 63).

11/63: 19 Oct 1830
Extracts of speech by Andrew Thompson, re: abolition of slavery, as copied by Richard Ball.

64-66 Letters from Richard Ball to JC (in London)
11/64: 29 Jun 1833
Re: Word connected to fight against slavery.

11/65: 9 Sep 1833
Re: RB's faith and illness.

11/66: 9 Nov 1833
Re: RB's illness.

11/67: 1833
Pamphlet:- 'Another Bonus to the Planters: or the Advantage Shown of an Equitable Purchase of the Monopoly and Bounty on West India Sugar' by James Cropper (printed).

11/68: nd
Instruction for a game 'Word Making and Word Faking'.

11/69: nd
Printed letter to the ministers who signed the Resolutions on the subject of travelling on the railway from JC.

11/70: nd
Printed sheet: 'Is War Christianity'.

11/71: 2 Jan 1833
Letter to JC from Thomas Lindon re: Friends of Peace.

11/72: nd
Printed Leaflet: 'Colonial Slavery - a source of distress at home no less than of misery abroad'.

11/73: 6 Nov 1833
Letter to JC from H Brougham re: school.

11/74: 13 Jan 1834
Printed letter re: agricultural school from JC.

11/75: 1834
Letter to JC from WJ Blair.

11/76: 1834
Printed leaflet: 'Outline of a plan for an agricultural school and for the employment of Agricultural Labourers by spade cultivation at Fearnhead near Warrington' by JC.

11/77: 17 Jan 1834
Letter to JC from JV Hall re: distribution of the 'sinners friend'.

11/78: March 1834
Letter to JC from JV Hall re: 'sinners friend' and his happiness that he has faith.

11/79: June 1839
Printed leaflet: 'Some account of an agricultural school for orphans at Fearnhead near Warrington in a letter to a friend' by JC.

11/80: nd
Copy of passage re bereavement
11/81: 1 Mar 1831
Printed Leaflet: 'The Christian Catholic Church Missionary Society, For Ireland' by T Tully Crybbace A M Limerick (with subscription form).

11/82: 19 Oct 1832
Printed letter with copy of letter from Rev Peter Williams, Rector of the African Episcopal Church, New York (a coloured gentleman), criticising the American Colonization Society presented to the Friends of the African race in England by Nathanial Paul, 'Agent of the Wilberforce Settlement' etc in Upper Canada.

11/83: 26 Nov 18?
Sketch, with Plan on dorse of Cottage.



12/1: 1823
General Election Guide - candidates and electors giving their view on slavery.

12/2: c 1820
Hand-written list of individuals and towns receiving parcels of pamphlets.

12/3: nd c. 1820s
Imaginative illustration re: slavery with verse caption.

12/4: nd c 1820s
Illustration of slaves with verse caption "...we have no Slaves at home, why then abroad?" by W Cowper.

12/5: nd c 1820s
Written extract from "Exodus xxi 26,27" and Colonel Arthur's Letter re: slavery.

12/6: 1826
Pamphlet: The First Report of the Female Society for the Relief of the British Negro Slaves (Birmingham and environs).

12/7: nd c 1820s
Illustration of a slave at prayer, prose caption.

12/8: nd c 1820s
Illustration of a slave with child, no prose caption.

12/8: nd c 1820s
Prayer of encouragement to the slave woman relevant to No. 8.

12/10: c 1822
Illustrated cross section of Spanish schooner, Josepha Maracayera captured on the coast of Africa on 19 August 1822, with a cargo of 216 male slaves. Shows slaves stowed in hold.

12/11: 14 June-21 June 1823
Supplement to the [Jamaica] Royal Gazette, Vol XLV. Contains notices of slave sales and runaways.

12/12: 14 June-21 June 1823
Additional postscripts to the Jamaica Royal Gazette with details of runaways.

12/13: Aug 1824
Article "Negro Slavery: Argument that the Colonial slaves are better off than the British peasantry" -answered from the Royal Jamaica Gazette by Thomas Clarkson, MA, originally appeared in Christian Observer.

12/14: 1824
Pamphlet: No British Slavery, or An Invitation to people to put a speedy end to it, London.

12/15: 1826
Pamphlet: What Does Your Sugar Cost - A Cottage Conversation re British Negro slavery.

12/16: 1823
Extract from Reasons for the Abolition of Slavery, Clarkson's Reasons For the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 2nd volume, 1808.

12/17: 31 Oct 1825
Pamphlet: Anti-Slavery Monthly Reporter No 5.

12/18: nd c 1820s
Criticism of slave conditions including advert re: sale of slaves from the Royal Jamaica Gazette, 4 Aug 1824.

12/19: 10 Sept 1825
Letter (copy) to the editor of the Devizes Gazette from "CI" in Calne re: slavery in the West Indies.

12/20: 1825
Article: The West Indies As They Are - "Or a Real Picture of Slavery, but more particularly as it exists in the Island of Jamaica" by the Rev Richard Bickell, originally printed in The Christian Observer.

12/21: 1825
Pamphlet: Account of A Shooting Excursion on the Mountains New Bromilly Estate in the Parish of Trelawny and Island of Jamaica in the Month of October 1824 (to settlement of runaway slaves).

12/22: nd c 1820s
Illustration of slave driver and female slave - re: anti-slavery and two line verse caption.

12/23: nd c 1820
Prayer on "Africa's Weal and Woe".

12/24: Mar 1826
Pamphlet: "Verses on Slavery" by Jane Yeoman, Birmingham.

12/25: nd c 1820s
"Chart of the World on Mercator's projection" Illustrative of the Impolicy of Slavery", coloured.

12/26: 30 Sept 1826
Pamphlet: Anti-Slavery Monthly Reporter, No 16.

12/27: nd c 1820s
Extract from a card of the Ladies Society for the Relief of Negro Slaves, explaining the contents of the Society's work bags, 2pps.

12/28: 3 Jul 1824
Extract from the Jamaica Gazette re: adverts of slave sales, 2pps.

12/29: c 1820
Pamphlet: Negro Slavery No 24; Is Negro Slavery Sanctioned by Scripture? (Review of a pamphlet defending slavery).

12/30: c 1825
Handwritten list of orders for American newspapers.

12/31: 1827
Handwritten notes on coals through the Sankey Canal.

12/32: 28 Jan 1830
Handwritten list of propositions made to E Heyrick re: Railway shares.

12/33: nd c 1820s
List of names and addresses in England and Ireland.

12/34: nd c 1820s
Printed sheet: Questions to Professing Christians On The Use of Slave - Grown Sugar, Coffee, etc, Birmingham.

12/35: 16 Feb 1828
Handwritten list of anti-slaver pamphlets at R Dickenson's.

12/36: c 1828
Handwritten list of anti-slavery pamphlets sent to R Newton and to America.

12/37: c 1828
Handwritten list of Scripture texts.

12/38: nd c 1820s
Handwritten list of correspondents and places of residence in Gt Britain, Ireland and America, 15pps.

12/39: 1830-31
List of anti-slavery pamphlets circulated by the Liverpool Ladies Association.

12/40: 1832
Blank application paper for the purchase of shares in the South Australian Land Company.

12/41: nd c 1832
Handwritten extract from the York Chronicle on the foundation of Liberia.

19 Mar 1824- 4 Sep 1826
Book containing Anti-Slavery newscuttings (index at back of volume).

14/1: 1797-1799
James Cropper's Account Book.

14/2: 1824
Scale plan - Dingle.

14/3: 1830
Letter: Committee-reporting in newspapers of lecture and public meeting on anti-slavery.

14/4: post 1830
"Remarks on the Proposed Enormous Grant of Twenty Million Sterling to the West-India Planters".

14/5: 1874
Book: death of John Cropper - obituary poem.

14/6: 1926
Drawing of Dingle Bank made 1926 by Derek & Anne Willink.

Cropper Pedigree (2 different copies).

Envelope containing Charlotte's hair and plan of warehouse.


15/1: 1824
Plan of land - property of James Cropper at Toxteth Park, Dingle, in the parish of Walton (See 14/2 for original.

15/2: 1926
Dingle Bank, Liverpool, 1824-1920, drawing of property layout by Anna & Derek Willink (see 14/6 for original).

15/3: c.1950
Dingle Bank - untitled photograph showing Shell-Mex oil depot sheds and barrels from the Shell Magazine, article by T Lloyd-Jones. Paintings by Florence M Willink

15/4c: 16 Aug 1893
Dingle Bank, Liverpool (Florry's Home).

15/5c: 4 Jul 1907
Dingle Bank, Haytime.

15/6c: March 1905
From Dingle Point.

15/7c: 23 Aug 1893
Dingle Bank (Mr Cropper's house in centre).

15/8c: 19 Aug 1893
From the river terrace looking up the Mersey.

15/9c: 18 Aug 1893
From the river terrace, Dingle Bank, looking down the Mersey. Main vessels in painting are identified as the following: T S Clarence (reformatory), Indefatigable, Akbar, Conway, Lucania (Liner) (and the arbour).

15/10c: 22 Aug 1893
View from the lodge gate, Dingle Bank.

15/11c: 25 Aug 1893
From dining room, Dingle Bank.

15/12c: 1901
Dingle Bank - view of stream with wooded banks (The Dingle).

15/13c: 1901
Dingle Bank - view of two funnelled steamer and two sailing vessels with the corner of a dock on the right.

15/14c: c.1893
Sepia of the Great House, Dingle Bank.

15/15c: 1899
Dingle Bank - drawing showing sailing flats and a paddle steamer in the river (entitled Christmas Greetings, 1899).

15/16c: 1896
Dingle Bank - drawing from esplanade showing a paddle steamer, the training vessels (see 9c) and the arbour.

15/17c: c.1900
Photograph of walk on Dingle Bank estate.

16/1: 1819
From T. Ellison's Gleanings & Reminiscences of the Cotton Trade, 1905 re: Adam Hodgson's voyage on the Courier, ('liner' managed by Cropper, Benson & Co.)

2-4 from A Hodgson, Letters to America
16/2: 1819
A Hodgson's description of his voyage out on the Courier (vol 1 pp 1-6).

16/3: 1819
A H's return voyage on the Albion (vol II pp 323-333).

16/4: 1818-1823
Account of wreck of the Albion 1822 (vol II p334-347). With particulars of passage times.

16/5: 1752-1840
Messrs Cropper, Benson & Co - list of ships under name/rig/tons/builders.

16/6: 1925
Photocopy of part of Basil Lubbock, The Black Ball Line (pp 3-9).

16/7: 1821-1823
Photocopy of article by D B Davis (pp 241-258) James Cropper and the British Anti-Slavery Movement from Journal of Negro History (Cornell University).

Photocopy of James Cropper and Liverpool's Contribution to the Anti-Slavery Movement by K Charlton (pp 57-60).

16/9: 1973
Photocopy of Liverpool and the East India Trade by K Charlton (pp 55-72).

16/10: 1935
Photocopy of Dingle Bank and the Grand Parents by A H Willink (pp 1-23).

16/11: 1631-1851
Photocopy of Cropper Family Tree.

Photocopy of will of James Cropper.

Photocopy of chapter five of Early Life in Liverpool (assorted pages from 95-251), taken from Prof Charles Reilly, Prof of Architecture, University of Liverpool, SCAFFOLDING IN THE SKY (autobiography).

16/14: 1823-1876
Photocopy of typescript - covers the history of Dingle Bank and the Croppers (2 pp).

Pages 62/63, Cropper's Dingle, site of Shell-Mex Refinery described in plans/article by T Lloyd-Jones (Shell House Magazine).

16/16: 1874
Four pages of photocopied obituaries (newscuttings) of John Cropper.

16/17: 1839-1870
Letters/journal extracts of John Cropper (miscellaneous).

16/18: 17 Mar 1856-11 Mar 1924
William Edward Willink, pp 1-5, biographical note.

Detached paper cover, title: Dingle Bank - the Home of the Croppers; A Recollection. (By Frances A Conybeare) (Original repaired and on shelf, biography).

16/20: 1853
Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands - Harriet Beecher Stowe (visit to Dingle Bank).

DD/III/12/48: 1850
The African Squadron Vindicated by Lieut Henry Yule,Bengal Engineers (Slave Trade).

DD/III/12/85: 18 Mar 1858
Printed letter: Thomas Clegg, Manchester, to McGregor Laird, Chairman of the African Steamship Company (from Journal of the Society of Arts) - re; supply of cotton from West Africa.

DD/III/14/2/17: n d
'Slavery' (3 pages)
DD/III/16/4/1: 1848
The Administration of Governor Light In British Guiana (Emancipation of Slaves) (printed Guiana Times Office): (with ms letter of W H Holmes).

DD/III/16/5/1: 1857
"Economic causes of slavery in the United States and obstacles to its abolition' by a southern Carolinian (printed, London).

DD/III/16/4/3: 15 Feb 1862
'The True State of the American Question': a reply to Mr Thurlow Weed by "Fair Play" (printed, London).

DD/III/17/11: 1856-1866
Six loose copies of the 'Globe', with articles discussing J T Danson's paper on Slavery & Cotton, (Aug 1856), letters by JTD on Maritime Law, (Dec 1856 & Jan 1857), and marked article on American privateering (Jan 1857).

DD/IV/7: 1889-1890
Filed correspondence and receipts re: the building of "Pioneer" by A Hall & Co, including a letter from JWWD to JTD re "coolies"

Original Manuscripts
A large number of important documents relating to the slave trade are to be found in the miscellaneous collections of archives, known collectively as the DX and SAS collections. These include:

DX1746: 1789
Volume: 'Report to Lords of Committee of Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations concerning the present state of the Trade to Africa, and particularly the Trade in slaves and concerning the effects and consequences of this Trade, as well in Africa and the West Indies, as to the general commerce of the kingdom. 1 volume.

DX/169: 1758-1762
Slave Trade invoice book of the Eadith, Chesterfield and Calvely. 1 volume.

DX/1555/R: 7 May 1768
Letter to William Davenport of Liverpool to Charles Margate, London re: sale of arrangoes (beads used in slave trading). 1 item.

SAS/37A/1/10: 1771-1773
Invoice book for the slaver snow Aston. 1 volume.

DX/1048: 1783
Articles of Agreement and Crew List of the Liverpool Hero slaving vessel. 1 item.

DX/1711: 1791
Will of Collman 'O' Loghlan, surgeon's mate on the slaver Christopher. 1 item.

DX/1732: 1794-95
Account book of slave ship Enterprise (owned by Leyland & Co, Liverpool), includes the taking of a Spanish privateer, a voyage to the Congo to collect slaves destined for Jamaica, crew list, slave sale details, captains instructions & voyage accounts. 1 volume.

DX/170: 1804-1806
Correspondence relating to slaver Kitty's Amelia The last British slave trader under the command of Hugh Crow in 1807. (Xeroxes & Article in SAS/37A.1.6 & 10). 10 items.

DX/1143: 1806
Voyage account of the slaver, Sally from the Cape Coast, Africa and list of seven slaves who died. 1 item.

DX/1543: 1811
Receipt for the returns of allowances paid to staff officer James Wilson, apothecary to forces at the garrison of Senegal for a black servant. 1 item.

DX/1677: 1817
Pamphlet: Barbarity to a Female Slave, and engraving Inhuman Cruelty to an Innocent Female Slave, while in a State of Pregnancy. 2 items.

DX/428/1: 1823
Printed letter: Adam Hodgson, Chairman of the Bank of Liverpool, on the Comparative Expense of Free and Slave Labour. 1 item.

DX/1544: 1826
Letter from James Calley, manager of a plantation in Berbice, Guiana to proprietor Hugh McCalmont in Belfast. Details of estates, cotton slaves, etc. 1 item.

DX/1175: 1832
Journal compiled by Vernon Poole, surgeon on the Kingston of Liverpool, for a voyage to West Africa, references to conditions, natives and Spanish slaves. 1 item

DX/1661: 1837-1839
Acts of Parliament for the suppression of the slave trade in the British Colonies, and various treaties with foreign powers.

/1: Vict R 1-2 CAPIII- 23 Dec 1837
An Act to carry into further execution the Provisions of the Act for completing the full payment of compensation to owners of slaves....

/2: Vict R 1 CAP XIX- 11 Apr 1838
An Act to amend the Act for the Abolition of Slavery

/3: Vict R 1-2 CAP XLVII- 27 Jul 1838
An Act for the better ... carrying into effect the Treaties for suppressing the Slave Trade.

/4: Vict R 1-2 CAPXLI- 27 Jul 1838
An Act for carrying into effect an additional Article to a Treaty with the Netherlands relating to the Slave Trade.

/5: Vict R 1-2 CAPXL- 27 Jul 1838
An Act to carry into effect a Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade.

/6: Vict R 1-2 CAPXXXIX- 27 Jul 1838
An Act ... Hans Touris.... King of the French ....Slave Trade.

/7: Vict R 1-2 CAPLXXXIII- 10 Aug 1838
An Act ...Tuscany... King of the French.... for suppressing the slave trade.

/8: Vict R 1-2 CAPLXXXIV- 10 Aug 1838
An Act .... Turo Sicilia.... French... Slave Trade.

/9: Vict R 1-2 CAPCII-14 Aug 1839
An Act to revive & continue.... the Suppression....

/10: Vict R 1 CAPLXXII- 17 Aug 1839
An Act for the suppression of the Slave Trade.

/11: Vict R 1-2 CAP LVIII- 20 Aug 1839
An Act to continue....the Suppression....

DX/593: 1852
Deed of sale of negro slave, New Orleans, USA. 1 item.

DX/1551: 1852-1853
Framed notice of an auction of 25 Sea Island cotton & rice slaves, Charleston, USA, and an agreement for sale of a female slave, New Orleans. 1 item.

DX/653: 1717
Merchants Records


/1: 6 Jul 1856
Letter: William Oates on Barque Sarah in New Calabar, West Africa, to his brother Reverend Richard Oates Richard not happy with his present post. New laws made and enforced in the trade; "New Calabar Court of Equity", of which every captain or trade master coming to a river had to become a member and act according to the laws laid down by the English Consul, e.g. no work aboard ship on Sundays.

/2: 24 Apr 1857
Letter: William Oates in Barque Sarah in New Calabar, West Africa, to Reverent Richard Oates - General pleasantries; WO getting little oil at the time.

/3: 21 Sept 1857
Letter: William Oates to Reverend Richard Oates - RO moved to Duke Street, Edge Hill. Mary and Clara Oates both unwell - consumption. Trouble with some of the natives over stoppage in supply of oil.

/4: 29 Nov 1857
Letter: William Oates in Barque Sarah to Reverend Richard Oates, Liverpool - RO now has a son and heir. WO expecting to return England by beginning of next August. Oil gains good again and the ship Dorothy will sail for Liverpool in 3-4 days. WO to be married on his return to England. Trade on Bonny River in oil almost stopped because of disagreement between the natives which they intended to settle by fighting. They have abolished the shark from being their Jew-Jew.

/5: 18 Sept 1858
William Oates, New Calabar River to Reverend Richard Oates, Liverpool - Loss of the steamer Mallacks and 4 men. WO still mourning death of his nephew, Alfred. General pleasantries.

/6: 4 Mar 1862
William Oates (SS Fideliter, New Calabar) to Reverend Richard Oates. Very little news to relate but trade is good and he is in good health.

/7: 5 Apr 1847
Mary Oates 35 Norton Street, Liverpool to Reverend Richard Oates, Manchester - Henry Crosbie and Henry's mother - both being ill - to stay at MO's house until they find suitable lodgings. Having to leave their house because the air in the north part of the town bad for Henry. MO asks for RO's approval of her actions.

/8: 4 Apr 1853
Richard Clare, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Richard Oates - Custom of uncovering his head when a man passes a church. English residents respect the Sabbath unlike the natives, but do not attend church in large numbers. The fever first appeared in Rio in 1850.

/9: 20 Jan 1854
Richard Clare, Santa Theresa Hill, Rio de Janeiro to Richard Oates - Congratulates RO on his marriage. The proportion of deaths in Rio to the population is less than in London during ordinary course of events there. RC feels Rio must be called a healthy place. RC moved to Santa Theresa Hill. News about his post in an office and his colleagues.

/10: 3 June 1853
C R Oates Liverpool to Richard Oates - Congratulates RO on his marriage. Writes about reports of speeches at RO's wedding which appeared in the Times, e.g. by Lord Derby.

/11: 12 Feb 1822
Elizabeth Neville, 6 Abbey Street, Dublin to Mr Edward Crosbie, Liverpool - Approval of EC's marriage to her daughter Eliza. Worried about disturbances in South of Ireland where her daughter Sally lives - lives threatened and house ransacked. Martial Law proclaimed (TRANSCRIBED).

/12: 16 Apr 1822
Elizabeth Neville, Dublin to Eliza Crosbie 31 Russell Street, Liverpool (daughter) - Injury to Sheldon's eye in an accident. Wrote to Mary care of Belfast Steam Packet and anxious for a reply. Disagreement between Edward Crosbie and his employers resulting in the former leaving his post. Jane suffering severe attacks. Due to a misunderstanding Sally thought Jane had died - death of a girl with the same name.

/13: 14 Oct 1828
Elizabeth Neville, Dublin to Eliza Crosbie, Russell Street, Liverpool - Edward taking care of lads' education, clothing, feeding, etc. EN sad that James and Mary no longer write to her.

/14: 1829
Elizabeth Neville Dublin to Edward Crosbie 29 Great Nelson Street East, Liverpool - Eliza very ill following a palpitation. Potatoes in very short supply in Ireland.

/15: Nov 1832
Elizabeth Neville, Dublin to Eliza Crosbie, 8 Windsor Street, Liverpool - Eliza having a baby which EN not delighted about because she feels EC has enough children to cope with (but God's will, will be done). Inhabitants of EN's house in Dublin ill during the summer (takes in lodgers to help support the household). Cholera in Dublin but almost gone.

/16: 17 Sept 1834
Elizabeth Neville, 33 Mecklingburg Street, Dublin to Eliza Crosbie, Windsor Street, Liverpool - EN sad that her children seem to have forgotten her. Unhappy at conduct of Sheldon and his wife whilst in the house - will not be welcome to stay again.

/17: 9 Apr 1854
Edward W Crosbie, Alvarada, Mexico to Eliza Crosbie (his mother), Workington, Cumberland - Deplorable conduct of Captain of William Stanley - act against a 14 year old boy aboard the ship. The Captain placed EWC under Mexican jurisdiction and had him put in prison. English Consul felt EWC should be released because his action against the Captain was justified but this difficult as Consul no control over Mexican jurisdiction. EWC was later freed. Captain bribed members of the crew to keep quiet. Later the boy fell overboard and drowned.

/18: 10 Sept 1839
Henry Crosbie (4), Liver Court, 5 Castle Street to his aunt, Liverpool - His mother very ill since news of Sheldon's death. Copy of letter from Daniel Bradley (missionary and physician in Bangkok, December 1838) improved her spirits. Sheldon* (*Enlisted under the name of Chell) died in October 1838 of dysentery after joining the ship Lightning which belonged to the King of Siam. During his illness Sheldon felt God and the Bible were precious to him.

/19: 22 Apr 1844
Henry Crosbie, Liverpool to his sister Lizzy Crosbie, 7 Upper Gardiner Street, Dublin - Misses her since she went to live in Ireland. Mother's health improved.

/20: 24 Mar 1847
Henry Crosbie, Liverpool to his mother, 7 Upper Gardiner Street, Dublin - HC ill with derangement of the digestive organs, but expects to be well soon.

/21: 23 Apr 1847
Edward W Crosbie, London to his mother Eliza 3 Norton Street, Liverpool - Death of his brother.

/22: 31 Aug 1847
John Trueman Crosbie, Liverpool to his mother Eliza, 3 Norton Street, Liverpool MC to visit Warren Point, birthplace of her mother. To meet Richard (step-brother?) whom she does not remember. Will travel aboard the Hercules or Nymph, depending on which is cheapest.

/23: 27 Dec 1853
Harriet G Burdon (née Forshaw), Shanghai, China (wife of the Bishop of Shanghai) to Elizabeth Ellen Ferguson - Apologising for lack of communication, best wishes and advice on her marriage, etc.

/24: 20 Mar 1778
John Aickin, Dublin to his father James - John's wife, Betty, given birth to a daughter. John recovered from illness after an operation. The business doing well.

/25: 10 Jul 1781
John Aickin, Dublin to James Aickin, Garryhankard Cork - Declining health of the former's mother.

/26: 6 Dec 1783
John Aickin, Dublin to James Aickin, Garryhankard Cork - Comforting his father following the death of his mother.

/27: June 1843
Lines on the death of John Thompson Finlay, copied by Henry Crosbie, Liverpool, from the Belfast Orthodox Presbyterian.

/28: 28 June 1815
Copy of part of a letter from the late Graves Aickin Esq, gentleman, to Samuel Aickin, Dublin, solicitor, written from Rough Grange, County Meath, Ireland. Origins of the Aickin family can only be traced back to the great grandfather. Details of how three Aickin brothers came from Scotland to live in Ireland. One at least was a Commissioner in the Customs. His grandfather Chamney came from England and bought lead in Counties Wicklow and Carlow. He worked iron mines in Shillelagh and 'lived like a prince'. Reference to marriages with Graves family of Drogheda.

/29: 8 Feb 1870
Theodore Cronhelm, Offices, 9 Eustace Street, Dublin - Death of W Crosbie, 22 January 1870, from Rheumatic Fever. (Copy of a letter from W Hannan, Master of the Florence Pope of Newport, informing the family of EC's death on dorse.)

/30: 19 Dec 1840
(Loose Letter) J Colquhoun to Henry Crosbie c/o Redish & Bird, Liverpool - Invitation for Henry, his mother and sisters to spend Christmas Day with him.

D/0/17: 12 Aug 1852- Dec 1854
Journal - William Oates' first voyage to Bonny, West Africa. Sailed from Liverpool in the ship Hants and arrived home in the barque Celma (10 December 1854).

D/0/18: 28 Mar 1856
Journal - Second voyage of William Oates from Liverpool aboard Charles Horsfall to West Africa. Returned aboard Grand Bonny.

MacGregor Laird (1808-1861) was a pioneer in the opening up of West Africa to trade, particularly the area we now know as Nigeria. He believed that the development of a vigorous trade in such commodities as palm oil was one of the best ways of improving the economy of that part of Africa and of bringing about the end of the slave trade which other countries than Britain still continued after it was abolished by our Parliament in 1833. He founded the African Steamship Company for this purpose using iron ships built by his brother, John, at his Birkenhead shipyard.

The letters, etc described below were donated by Mrs E J White, a descendant living in New Zealand, in 1981.

Transcripts of DX/258/1/1-26
DX/258/1/1-26: Letters, 1857-1859.
DX/258/2: Family History.
DX/258/3: Laird Family letters and photographs.
DX/258/4: Newscuttings.
DX/258/5/1-13: Letters (re the founding of a school at the Niger etc).


In 1852, MacGregor Laird formed the African Steamship Co. With the backing of a Liverpool merchant, Thomas Stirling, Laird and Richard Lander, an African explorer, formed an expedition with the object of opening up the Niger trade. The expedition sailed in 1832. Although it was a failure commercially, it proved that the Niger was navigable by steamers and that a large internal trade was possible.

For a time MacGregor Laird turned his back on West Africa, but in 1837 he formed a company to operate steamers between Liverpool and New York. In 1844 he moved to Birkenhead and for the next four years was actively engaged in developing the shipbuilding and engineering works of Laird Brothers (later to become Cammell Laird & Co Ltd). He was a member of that family. However, in 1848 he moved to London and devoted the rest of his life to the development of trade with West Africa.

Laird entered into a contract with the government to maintain a regular monthly service to West African ports. The African Steamship Co was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1852. The Company initially had five ships, three of which were name Faith, Hope and Charity. By the 1870s the company's trade from London was not proving very profitable and the firm transferred its home port to Liverpool, which became the permanent home port in 1875.

In 1868 John Dempster became Liverpool agent for a new company trading in West Africa. For a partner he chose Alexander Elder, the firm of Elder Dempster now enters the story and by 1890 it had officially taken over the Management. The records listed here are incorporated in the Ocean Archives, the archives of the Ocean Transport and Trading Company which took over Elder Dempster in 1936.

Vol 1: 1853 - 1867
Vol 2: 1868 - 1882
Vol 3: 1882 - 1910
Vol 4: 1910 - 1923

C/EX/L/2/1: Wool Act Register, 1739-1792

This contains the text of owner's declarations, made under the Act 12 George II (1739) cap. 21, which was particularly concerned to prevent the export of wool from Ireland by non-British vessels. It recorded the vessel's name; home port; date and place of build (sometimes) whether home; foreign or plantation built; rig (or general type of vessel); tonnage; master's name; names of owner or part-owners; and whether taken as a prize or otherwise of foreign build together with a reference to the circumstances of its seizure or condemnation, and when and where "made free".

Plantation Registers
These contain the text of owner's declarations, under the Act for preventing frauds and regulating abuses in the Plantation Trade (7-8 William & Mary [1695], cap. 22), recording details as above. The early Liverpool slaving and privateering vessels are found in this series.
C/EX/L/3/1: Plantation Registers, 1743 - 1756
C/EX/L/3/2: Plantation Registers, 1756 - 1765

C/EX/L/3/3: Plantation Registers, 4 May 1765 - 24 Dec 1723
C/EX/L/3/4: Plantation Registers, 7 Aug 1779 - 20 Nov 1784

Register Books

Also known as Subsidiary Register Books (because they are a condensed form of the volumes of Certificates of Registry - see above) these contain the details of ships registered under the above Act with additional details: the owner's residence and occupation; tonnage under the "old measurement" or builder's measurement rule; and a more systematic description of the vessel, length, breadth, and depth (in feet and inches) and number of decks and masts, with particulars of stern configuration and figurehead if any.

C/EX/L/5/1: Subsidiary Register Book; 12 Aug 1788 - 9 Jul 1788
C/EX/L/5/2: Subsidiary Register Book; 10 Feb 1788 - 24 Oct 1793

C/EX/L/5/3: Subsidiary Register Book; 2 Nov 1793 - 19 Nov 1798
C/EX/L/5/4: Subsidiary Register Book; 23 Nov 1798 - 21 May 1802

C/EX/L/5/5: Subsidiary Register Book; 22 May 1802 - 18 Mar 1805
C/EX/L/5/6: Subsidiary Register Book; 19 Mar 1805 - 8 Jun 1808

C/EX/L/5/7: Subsidiary Register Book; 9 Jun 1808 - 2 May 1810
C/EX/L/5/8: Subsidiary Register Book; 2 May 1810 - 21 May 1813

C/EX/L/5/9: Subsidiary Register Book; 21 May 1813 - 7 Jun 1816
C/EX/L/5/10: Subsidiary Register Book; 18 Jun 1816 - 24 May 1820

C/EX/L/5/11: Subsidiary Register Book; 25 May 1820 - 9 Sep 1823
C/EX/L/5/12: Subsidiary Register Book; 24 Sep 1823 - 29 Dec 1823
C/EX/L/4/1: Original certificates of British Registry; 31 Aug 1786 - 5 Oct 1786

Official copies of the certificates of registry, granted under the Registry Act of 26 George III (1786), cap. 60, sec 3. Only one sample volume has been included in this edition as these volumes are very frail and bulky and the information contained in these certificates appears in a more condensed form in the Register Books

Subsidiary Register Books of non-Liverpool Registered Vessels
Contain the details in the form of L5/1-12 above, apparently for "calling ships" at Liverpool. It was not statutorily required to be kept and was discontinued in 1818. Some 10,000 vessels were recorded.

C/EX/L/6/1: 30 Oct 1788 - 6 Aug 1791
Subsidiary Register Books of Non-Liverpool Registered Vessels
C/EX/L/6/2: 8 Aug 1791 - 6 Oct 1796
- ditto -

C/EX/L/6/3: 15 Oct 1796 - 29 Aug 1800
Subsidiary Register Books of Non-Liverpool Registered Vessels
C/EX/L/6/4: 3 Sep 1800 - 16 Sep 1803
- ditto -

C/EX/L/6/5: 2 Jan 1804 - 7 Jul 1807
Subsidiary Register Books of Non-Liverpool Registered Vessels
C/EX/L/6/6: 5 Aug 1807 - 12 Mar 1810
- ditto -

C/EX/L/6/7: 12 Mar 1810 - 21 Jul 1812
Subsidiary Register Books of Non-Liverpool Registered Vessels
C/EX/L/6/8: 21 Jul 1812 - 30 Aug 1814
- ditto -

C/EX/L/6/9: 30 Aug 1814 - 30 Apr 1817
Subsidiary Register Books of Non-Liverpool Registered Vessels
C/EX/L/6/10: 7 May 1817 - 31 Oct 1818
- ditto -

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