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Papers from The Mass-Observation Archive at the University of Sussex

Part 7: Topic Collections - Air Raids, Morale and the Blitz

Part 8: Topic Collections - Conscription, Pacifism and War Service

Detailed Listing - Part 7

REEL 117

AIR-RAIDS, 1938-1945

TC23: 12 boxes


23/1/A: Investigation into ARP
"The Sociology of the ARP " by Mass-Observation in New Statesman and Nation, 5.11.38
Newscutting : "What people think of ARP" by Mass-Observation, Daily Herald, 17.1.39
Letter from Daily Herald to Tom Harrisson re above article
Newscutting : "Deep Shelters Are Not Ruled Out", News Chronicle, 10.1.39
Questionnaire on ARP and underground shelters - various replies gathered by Observers AH. and LT. in London areas
Casual interviews in ARP, Bolton
Questionnaire : "What led you to join ARP or NFS. ?" Two pages of extracts from replies, with analyses

“Inv heard early in the morning that a house in which his aunt’s mother lived had been hit. He went to the road and found this was true. He tried to find out from the policeman on duty whether there had been any casualties, but the policeman did not know; nor did the rescue party clearing up the mess.

Inv then went to the warden’s post; discovered that it was the wrong sector, but was given the information that there had been casualties. Went to the right warden’s post where he found that the lady in question had been taken away suffering from shock…”

23/1/B: The Crisis, August - September 1939
Observations at Victoria Station 26.8.39
Informal interviews, overheard comments and observations by JA in various London areas
Count of gas masks being carried, 13.9.39
Assorted oddments, conversations on the impact of the declaration of war

23/1/C: Behaviour during the blackout, September 1939
Observations made in various parts of London by three Observers (JA, WRL. and AH) who followed members of the public through the streets
Two letters to Tom Harrisson from people who had carried out "follows"
Notes on the "follows" with analyses

23/1/D: Reactions to the blackout, September - November 1939
Selected comments taken from Panel material and overheard comments in Bolton
Descriptions of incidents and conversations relating to the blackout
Effects of the blackout on leisure activities : dancing, cinemas, cafes, shops, colleges, sport, parks
Light counts September - November 1939 in London
Observations and accounts of conversations made on the underground and on the main line trains, October 1939 by NM
Cuttings and typed extracts from the press on the blackout, ARP, the progress of the war, October-November 1939

23/1/E: Preparations for air raids, August 1939
Questionnaire survey carried out in Hampstead asking people about blackout preparations, shelters, air raid alarms etc. (45 interviews)
Typed report of conversation with the Deputy Town Clerk of Finchley about the building of shelters, 30.8.39 (TH)

23/1/F: Opinion about the likelihood of air raids on London, October - November 1939
Questionnaire survey carried out at intervals in different types of areas
Report by CF. and qq replies
Questionnaires on the news, December 1939

23/1/G: Detailed observations of community life at the outbreak of war, September 1939
Letter and report by DMH. at Sidford, South Devon
Letter and report by BA at Glenfield, Leicestershire

23/1/H: Effects of the outbreak of war on ordinary life
Personal letters :
To Tom Harrisson from his mother in Winchester, August 1939
To Tom Harrisson from his wife Biddy (Clayton) in West Stafford, Dorset
To Tom Harrisson and Biddy from her mother, Elinor Pellatt, in Dorset
To Elinor Pellatt, from Mary Clayton (Biddy Clayton's first mother-in-law)
[Tom Harrisson married Biddy Clayton née Pellatt. Biddy's first husband was Michael Clayton and they had a son, John, aged about six in 1939]
To unknown person from Lady Anne Hill
Observations by Tom Harrisson, August - September 1939. Accounts of journey from London to Dorchester. Account of visit to mother-in-law's home, Dorset

23/1/I: Accounts of volunteer stretcher bearers
Report : Hampstead Rescue Party Depot 3 [stretcher bearers], HDW., September 1939
Report : Observers' experiences : ARP, Ealing, WRL, December 1939
Reactions to officials
Extracts from panel material referring to ARP wardens, 1939
Report on ARP wardens, Streatham, by Observer WP, September 1939
Observation of a war policeman on duty, West Ealing, September 1939
Report on the vigilance of ARP officials in Harrow, by CLB., September 1939
Reactions to the sound of the air raid siren, August - November 1939
Reactions to air raid warning and sight of German bomber in Bolton, November 1939
Assorted notes and observations on ARP

23/1/J: Shelters in Fulham, November 1939
Report by Observer KB on the state of Anderson shelters

“Obs saw 16 shelters, and collected about 20 opinions on them. Most of the shelters had been sandbagged in front of the entrance and some all round. Most had boarded floors and many had put down lino or pieces of old carpet ….The favourite form of lighting was a candle ….

Generally people seem quite pleased with the shelters saying they will at any rate give protection from shrapnel and splinters … . The chief complaint was that people would have to get out of their warm beds and go out in the cold to them, thus making illness. “If you have to either die of pneumonia or get bombed, I don’t know which is worst.”

Another complaint from some people was that the shelters were very damp. One woman had toad-stools growing inside hers ….”

REEL 118


23/2/A: Attitudes to the ARP in Fulham, March 1939
63 Questionnaire replies to 4 questions on what people think of the local ARP, whether the Council is doing its best, whether Fulham is prepared for war and interviewees' own voluntary efforts. KB

23/2/B: Opinions of ARP volunteers in Fulham, April 1939.
50 interviews with volunteers about why they offered their services and what factors influenced their decision. KB (2 copies)

23/2/C Pilot study : ARP volunteers in Fulham, April -May 1939
Copy of questionnaire with 6 questions (as above), with 63 replies (KB) plus a further 8 replies from Observers MR. and LT
Analysis of results

23/2/D: Preliminary survey : ARP volunteers in Fulham, May 1939
Copies of questionnaire (8/9 qqs)
42 replies; interviews by KB, LT, EBC, MER
Brief summary of results by EBC

23/2/E: Personal accounts from ARP volunteers
8 short reports on ARP work sent to KB

23/2/F: ARP in Fulham May - June 1939
Various manuscripts describing Mass-Observation's major study, with sections on method and results, covering recruitment and propaganda, reasons for volunteering and attitudes to ARP work
Notes on ARP propaganda
ARP leaflets

23/2/G: Questionnaire : ARP Study, May 1939
Various drafts with notes by TH and KB

Questionnaire replies, May - June 1939 (Total 769)
23/2/H: From Observers DS (62) and AH (78)
23/2/I: From Observer HAC (116)
23/2/J: From Observer KB (413)
23/2/K: From Observer EBC. (96)
23/2/L: From Observer MER. (134)

REEL 119


23/3/A: Breakdown of results: Tables and analysis sheets
23/3/B: Tabulation of results
23/3/C: Address labels for ARP volunteers (omitted)
23/3/D: Address list of ARP volunteers (omitted)

REEL 120


23/4/A: Air Raid Precautions : official advice and information.
Air Raids : What you must do, What you must know. Ministry of Home Security, 1941
Posters: 3 Fougasse posters on ARP
Booklet : The Duties of an Air Raid Warden. HMSO, 1938
Selection of leaflets about ARP on home security, recruitment to voluntary services, the ARP card, the ARP button, warden's form for reporting air raid damage
Sudden birth in an air raid shelter: "instructions for persons in charge of air raid shelters...." Ministry of Health, June 1940
[Air Raid Precautions Memo No.16 Working after the siren. Ministry of Home Security (1940) - moved to Topic Collection INDUSTRY: 6/j]
Note outside a pub: “No gas; no water; but good spirits.”

23/4/B: ARP social functions
Miscellaneous notes and printed ephemera

23/4/C: ARP magazines
Correspondence between Mass-Observation and the producers of ARP publications, 1940 - 1
Report on ARP magazines (BW 26.7.40)

23/4/D: Gas : protection and advice
Booklets, leaflets, cuttings and posters on the use of gas masks and the identification of types of gas attacks

23/4/E: Commercial ARP products
Selection of advertising material and information booklets produced by commercial firms, including items on protecting the home, types of shelter, useful publications on ARP, blackout etc

23/4/F: Fire watching
Recruiting leaflets for the Auxiliary Fire Service, instructions for dealing with fire bombs, forms for volunteers

23/4/G: First aid
Recruitment leaflets, Red Cross enrolment forms, charity requests from Red Cross, Ministry of Health advice leaflet on first aid

23/4/H: Shelters
Selection of official printed items on shelters

23/4/I: Air raid damage and post-raid relief
Pamphlet : How to act after a raid, issued by the Dept of Health for Scotland (3 versions for different areas)
Assorted leaflets and forms with information on rest centres, claims for damages, relief, evacuation etc

23/4/J: Air raids
Cuttings from national and local press, 1940 - 1

23/4/K: Voluntary organisations
Assorted printed material produced by the Air Raid Defence League, the Friends Relief Service, the War Damage Claimants' Association and the National Council of Social Service

23/4/L: Spitfire Funds and salvage
Publicity and requests for support for Spitfire Funds
Items on salvage, waste and rubbish

23/4/M: National Service
Assorted leaflets on recruitment to Civil Defence and the armed forces

REEL 121


Public Shelters

Reactions to alarms; use of public shelters; types of shelters and facilities; descriptions of behaviour, dress, morale; accounts of overheard conversations and incidents. Observations made chiefly in London by full-time Mass-Observation investigators; some reports from voluntary observers. For further reports on air raids, see Directive Replies 1940

23/5/A: Observations gathered June - July 1940

23/5/B: Observations gathered August 1940
News Quotas (JS) August 1940


“Bombing and gun-fire is taken as a matter of course in every town in the area, except where the bombs actually fall. That is to say that raids, such as yesterday’s, are not subject for much comment by the local people in surrounding districts, but do, naturally, become the centre of interest in the town immediately affected. Similarly with rumour – contrary to general assumption, there was much more rumour in Redhill itself, where the damage was done, than in any other towns, where no damage was done.” South London, 18/8/40

23/5/C: Observations gathered September 1940
File D: Observations gathered October - November 1940

23/5/E: Tube shelters : observations in the London Underground, September - November 1940
Reports, observations and impressions gathered in the underground shelters : descriptions of behaviour, clothing, noise, food, facilities, police presence and morale

23/5/F: Brick shelters, July 1940
Report on brick shelters with interviews and accounts of people's opinions on safety of shelters. Account of inspection of shelters by Professor JBS Haldane

23/5/G: Types of shelters, September 1940
Results of small survey asking people in London what they think of the shelters they use; questionnaire also on attitudes to bombing and death

23/5/H: Anderson shelters, September 1940
Reports from Observer LE on private shelters, particularly his family's Anderson shelter in Streatham
General note on Anderson shelters in Kilburn

23/5/I: Tilbury shelter, October 1940
Observations made on facilities, behaviour etc
Replies to questions on the Tilbury shelter - smell, food, organisations, charity efforts, first aid

23/5/J: Tube shelter publications, 1940
Note on papers The Swiss Cottager and Piccadilly Gazette produced by tube shelterers

REEL 122


23/6/A: Personal diary 5.10.40 - 9.10.40
An account by full-time Observer, KB of her trip from Bristol to London, her family home in Wandsworth and her flat in Fulham; includes information of London bomb damage and on people's attitudes. Description of the plight of friends who had been bombed out.

23/6/B: Questionnaire on use of shelters, November 1940
Survey of sleeping habits, choice of sleep-place and opinions on the safety of shelters. Carried out in London areas; Shepherds Bush, Nottinghill Gate, Streatham, Finchley and Kilburn, approx. 200 interviews
Table of results

23/6/C: Household readjustments, October 1940
Small survey by NM and CF on domestic arrangements during air raids, including sleeping patterns, use of shelters, games played, food available, first aid, clothing and so on. Kilburn and Stepney areas

23/6/D: News Quota Survey October 1940
Questions put to people in Kilburn and Streatham about reactions to the latest news, amount of sleep they have been getting, getting out of London and sleeping in the Underground

23/6/E: Sleeping arrangements, August - September 1940
Detailed observations with interviews : bedding arrangements, people's sleep difficulties, shelter facilities etc
Various observations : effects of war on nerves; psychological strain of the bombing

23/6/F: Ear plugs 1940
Sample of ear plugs. Reports on use of ear plugs, including interviews on people's attitudes to them. (Questionnaire includes question on reactions to slogan : "Be like Dad, keep Mum".)

23/6/G: Health and first aid, 1940
Reports, observations and overheard comments on first aid facilities, ambulances, stretcher bearers, reactions to air raids in hospitals, recruitment of medical personnel (pamphlets), sales in chemist shops of ear plugs, first aid kits etc., casualties and funerals of air raid victims

23/6/H: Air raid morale, 1940 - 41
Reports and impressions of the way in which people cope with raids and behaviour in shelters
Printed pamphlet : Psychological Effects of Air Raids, by PE Vernon from The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, October 1941
Notes on government propaganda directed at people in bombed areas
Newspaper cuttings on raids, 1940 - 1

23/6/I: Miscellaneous notes and correspondence
Assorted papers relating to ARP, shelters and air raids

REEL 123


23/7/A: Homelessness, rest centres and communal feeding, September - October 1940
Observations made in heavily blitzed areas of London, including Stepney, Paddington, and Walthamstow. Interviews with people whose homes have been bombed, impressions of morale, comments on post-raid services and availability of information
Official leaflets
Press cuttings on air raid damage
Leaflets of local Tenants' Defence Leagues, etc.

“Inv got the impression that people whose homes are completely destroyed seem to have a more carefree attitude to the whole situation, and to be much more optimistic and full of plans, than those whose homes were only partially damaged – windows broken, etc. A woman who has kept a little shop and finds it reduced to a heap of rubble would display quite an amount of gaiety and joking good humour about it, while one whose windows had blown in or spoilt the current lot of goods tended to be just miserable, and sometimes full of grievances about compensation etc (about which these seems to be almost total ignorance and many rumours on all hands). It seemed that total destruction brings with it a sense of relief from responsibility.”

23/7/B: Post raid services, October 1940
Press cuttings, leaflets and correspondence
Leaflets from the Air Raid Damage Relief Fund

23/7/C: Quality of life during air raids, October 1940
Selection of letters from friends and relatives to Mass-Observation volunteer panel members: covers all aspects of life during air raids, including evacuation, reactions to news, shelter social life, sleeping habits, inconveniences caused by war conditions. Letters from all over Britain

23/7/D: Effects of air raids on leisure, entertainment and shopping
Assorted notes and observations relating to the effects of blackout on shopping habits, use of cafes, cinemas, libraries, colleges, clothing and fashion trends
Interviews carried out in September 1940 on visiting friends, domestic activities, radio listening, and newspaper reading, games, eating habits

23/7/E: ARP and ARP Wardens 1939 - 40
Impressions and accounts of incidents at wardens' posts including observations on the behaviour of wardens

23/7/F: ARP Questionnaire, June 1940
Report : "The ARP Card and its Effects". Information based on 105 interviews with householders in 4 areas of London about the ARP card distributed by the Ministry of Home Security. The card contained information of local ARP services
Press-cutting re ARP recruitment, The Star 10.6.40
ARP questionnaire with replies

23/7/G: Barrage, September 1939 - 40
Reactions to the sound of anti-aircraft guns. Note on blimps (barrage balloons)
Observations of reactions to blimps in Shepherds Bush Green (JA) 14.9.39

23/7/H: German bomber down, 1939 - 40
Report : local response to incident in small village
Report: rumours of an aeroplane being brought down near Romford, sent in by volunteer, 10.9.39

23/7/I: Fear of parachutists, May 1940
Impressions based on indirect interviews about the likelihood of German soldiers landing by parachute

23/7/J: Local Defence Volunteers (LDV), June - September 1940
General reports from Worcester and Fulham

23/7/K: Appeal for support of munitions and aircraft production, 1940 - 1941
Report on Aluminium Appeal, 15.7.40
Account of an exhibition of Messerschmitt 109 at Croydon, in aid of Croydon "Spitfire" Fund
Assorted notes and reports on appeal funds, War Weapon Weeks, and propaganda including a Spitfire badge

23/7/L: Regulations and offences, 1940
Copy of Everyman's Guide to the War Regulations, 1940
Notes on cases of prosecutions under the Defence Regulations from the press, July 1940

REEL 124


Apart from the first file which contains general information about the bombing of provincial towns, the files contain reports, letters, leaflets, official forms and memoranda and other items relating to a specific town or area. Much of this material has been donated to Mass-Observation by members of the volunteer panel, but the main reports come from full-time Mass Observation investigators
Further material on air raids is filed with the Directive Replies for 1940
Additional town files which have been added after the first sorting have been interfiled alphabetically (hence C2)

Other information about air raids may be found in the Topic Collection: TOWN AND DISTRICT SURVEYS

23/8/A: Effects of air raids
Report : The Effect of Air Raids in Great Britain published by The Economic League (Central Council). Duplicated copy, 1.7.40
Report : Reactions to Air Raids as Observed by Citizens Advice Bureaux (Home Intelligence, from Stephen Taylor to Mary Adams), September 1940? References to a number of cities and towns
Report by Lionel Fielder of Ministry of Food who accompanied Tom Harrisson to Southampton, 3.12.40. No title, but discusses reactions of civilians to bombing. Annotation "Lord Woolton took this to Cabinet"
Report (M-O) Plan for Survey of Blitzed Town, 8.1.41. Guidance for Mass Observation investigators (CF)
Report (M-O) : Re Morale in Blitzes by JF, 23.3.41. Suggestions for policy changes in reporting on blitzed towns
Report : Draft Plan (Mark III) for use in emergencies resulting from serious air raiding, MOI, 18.1.41

23/8/B: Aberdeen (printed material only)
23/8/C: Barrow-in-Furness (printed and duplicated material only)
23/8/C2: Billingshurst, Sussex
23/8/D: Birmingham
23/8/E: Bishop Auckland, Co Durham
23/8/F: Bolton
23/8/G: Bradford

23/8/H: Brighton
“Don’t remember when a. r. warning went: was enlarging Joyce’s portraits and had test-stripped one onto Bromesko, went from dark room to scullery to examine in light. Heard what sounded like cannon (machine cannon which had heard before during dogfights over town). As stood at door opening to yard, ‘cannon fire’ very loud: heard some things falling and thinking these might be empty shells, went in – as did so heard bangs definitely very loud and close, quickly land on face on scullery floor and put head under sink – another bang. Heard more stuff coming down – glass and rubble ….”
Raid on Brighton 14/9/40 3pm

23/8/I: Bristol
23/8/J: Bromley
23/8/K: Campbeltown, Argyllshire
23/8/K2: Cambridge (rest centres)
23/8/L: Cardiff
23/8/M: Caterham
23/8/N: Chelmsford (duplicated material only)

23/8/O: Cheltenham
“The gas works received at least one direct hit but the damage is probably not vital. The only other large building was a workhouse. The rest of the damage was done to small working class homes and shops.”
Cheltenham, 18/12/40

23/8/P: Chepstow
23/8/Q: Clacton
23/8/R: Clydeside, including Glasgow
23/8/S: Consett
(poster and correspondence relating to the Citizens Advice Bureau)

23/8/T: Coventry
“A group of six men were looking quietly at the cathedral ruins. They said little, but “awful” and “terrible” were words they applied to the scene. When one middle-aged man remarked “and this is the twentieth century,” he probably epitomised the feelings of the whole group.”
Coventry, 15/11/40

23/8/U: Croydon
23/8/V: Derby
23/8/W: Doncaster

REEL 125


23/9/A: Eastbourne
23/9/B: "East Coast Village", Essex
23/9/B2: Exeter
23/9/C: Gateshead
23/9/C2: Great Malvern
23/9/D: Greenock
23/9/D2: Harrow
23/9/E: Hastings
23/9/F: Huddersfield
23/9/F2: Hull
23/9/G: Ipswich (printed material only)
23/9/H: Isle of Dogs
23/9/I: Kilburnie (printed material only)
23/9/J: Leatherhead
23/9/K: Leeds
23/9/K2: Leek
23/9/L: Leicester
23/9/M: Liverpool
23/9/N: London : general, including raids on City and Putney
23/9/O: London : fire watching
23/9/P: London areas: Fulham
23/9/Q: London areas: Hendon
23/9/R: London areas: Lewisham
23/9/S: London areas: Notting Hill Gate
23/9/T: London areas: Stepney
23/9/U: London areas: Streatham
23/9/V: Loughborough
23/9/W: Lowestoft

REEL 126

23/10/A: Manchester
23/10/B: Middlesbrough
23/10/C: Newcastle
23/10/D: Norwich
23/10/E: Northampton
23/10/F: Oxford
23/10/G: Petersfield
23/10/H: Plumstead
23/10/I: Plymouth
23/10/J: Portsmouth
23/10/K: Radlett
23/10/L: Redcar
23/10/M: Romford
23/10/N: Salford
23/10/O: Scunthorpe
23/10/P: Sheffield
23/10/Q: Southend
23/10/R: Southampton
23/10/S: Swansea
23/10/T: Swindon
23/10/T2: Trowbridge
23/10/U: Watford
23/10/V: West Bromwich
23/10/W: Wolverhampton
23/10/X: Woodbridge
23/10/Y: Worcester
23/10/Z: York and North Riding

REEL 127

TC 23, BOX 11: AIR RAIDS 1940-42

23/11/A: Survey on attitudes to compulsory ARP work, January 1941
Small number of interviews in London area on following questions :
Should ARP work be made compulsory ?
If yes, should this apply to both men and women ?
Should the army help with ARP work ?
Should fire watching be compulsory for private premises ?

Tabulations of results included

23/11/B: Fire-fighting, 1939-41
Selected leaflets and duplicated instructions
Observations on fire fighting activities in London
Diary extracts (Harrisson) September 1941; (Smallbones) January 1942

23/11/C: Gas masks, 1941-42
Counts of numbers of people carrying gas masks.
Report on a mock gas attack, Putney High Street, London
Description of poster on gas
For detailed information see GAS MASKS

23/11/D: Bombs in Hendon, February - March 1941
Account of bomb incidents by full-time Observer including accounts of interviews with local people

23/11/E: Air Raid Questionnaire, July 1941
Survey carried out in Oxford and London on people's expectations of further heavy raids
Report of results included

23/11/F: News Quota, March 1941
Report on the effect on the public of hearing that 9 German planes had been brought down

23/11/G Shelters, 1941
Counts of people using public shelters, London areas, March 1941. Correspondence about sheltering and types of shelters
Survey on shelter preference: questions in the street about choice of shelter, brick or Anderson, February 1941
Survey results : questions on the Morrison (indoor) shelters
News cuttings on sheltering
People's views on the effects of fog on the likelihood of raids, February 1941

23/11/H Shelter Survey proposed by the British Journal of Psychology (Social Psychology Section), 1941
Comparison of plans for survey from Gertrude Wagner, Marie Jahoda and others. Critique by JF (M-O)
Report of discussion between psychologists

23/11/I: Chislehurst Caves, August 1941
Impressions and observations of people using the caves as air raid shelters. Includes survey on people's use of the caves

23/11/J: Fire Bomb Fritz Questionnaire, September 1941
Reactions to the new Ministry of Home Security advertisement on dealing with fire bombs

23/11/K: Warden's post, June 1941
Description of an ARP post, appearance, facilities, personnel, organisation, with an account of one evening's activities

23/11/L: Argument at a Warden's post, April 1941
Correspondence relating to a complaint against personnel at an ARP post in Twickenham

23/11/M: Home Guard, 1941
Report from a young member of the Home Guard (EG). Description of routines, incidents. May - June 1941

23/11/N: Police, 1941
Check by Mass-Observation to see how good were police directions for finding Citizens Advice Bureaux

23/11/O: "Blitz information", 1941
Article "Blitz information - the lifeline of Civil Defence" by Tom Harrisson in Local Government Service, August 1941
Criticism of availability of post-raid information
Replies and correspondence to criticism
Copies of local government information booklets

23/11/P: Wearing white in the blackout
Comparisons of counts 1940, 1941, and 1942

REEL 128

TC 23, BOX 12: AIR RAIDS 1942-45

23/12/A: Reprisals
Comparison of public attitudes towards bombing reprisals, 1940, 1941, and 1942

23/12/B: Civil Defence workers, 1942
Indirect comments, mainly from Hampstead, on Civil Defence Workers' attitudes to be released to take part time jobs, April 1942
Fire watching registration Kilburn, October 1942
Assorted duplicated papers on ARP education
Assorted papers on ARP education
Assorted notes on fire watching
Forms issued by the National Association of Girls' Training Corps, with correspondence

23/12/C: Air raid alert and sheltering, 1942
Indirect comments and observations of people' reactions to air raid alerts in various parts of London, 16.3.42
Observation in air raid shelters : Regent Square, St. Pancras and Museum Tube Shelter, 30.3.42

23/12/D: Air raids and sheltering, 1943
Indirect comments and observations

23/12/E: Air raids on London, June 1944
Reactions to the pilotless planes : indirect comments, observations and letters

23/12/F: Air raids on London, 1944
Assorted reactions to raids, overheard comments and observations, including account of Tube sheltering
Typed special report on unofficial noises, explosions and rumours about them. Sent in by volunteer, London, September 1944

23/12/G: Reaction to V2 bombs, 1945
Indirect comments with report

23/12/H: De-escalation of Civil Defence
Blackout: notes, 1943 and report on relaxation, 1944; lifting of blackout, 1945
Report on the stand down parade of part-timers in the National Fire Service, March 1945
Responses to special Directive on the lifting of the blackout, 1944, giving details of personal reactions and observations. Sent in by volunteers, September - October 1944
Press cutting from The Yorkshire Post on the lifting of the blackout, 18.9.44
Press cutting from The Caterham Times on the lifting of the blackout, 22.9.44

23/12/I: Diary extracts on air raids
Typed passages taken from war diaries sent to Mass-Observation, including a commentary

23/12/J: Tom Harrisson - air raid notes
Pencil notes (not very legible)

23/12/K: Mass-Observation volunteer Panel of Observers
Copy of letter from M-O to Observers asking for material, 20.11.40
Draft copy of Bulletin for Panel, 16.9.40, describing M-O's War Library

23/12/L: Picture Post article, 17.8.40
Notes, plans and draft mss for an issue of Picture Post on air raids; includes correspondence with Tom Hopkinson and poor photocopy of air raid article

23/12/M: Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous Notes, memos, letters etc. relating to Mass-Observation's study of air raids.

REEL 129


TC 43: 5 boxes


43/1/A: Opinion Formation. December 1939-January 1940
Typed and handwritten interviews, (KB, JA, LE, HP, VMD, HN, JS, AFC, NM)
“Mrs. Clarke, housekeeper, aged 62, Irish and brought up in Ireland, is widow with one daughter of 18, now sharing a flat with and looking after widower (Obs’s farther). Not political. Voted Conservative at last election because told (by Obs’s farther) she ought to. Otherwise would probably not have voted. Reads the Daily Express all through every day at odd “Five Minute” and takes it up to bed with her to finish off. Often reads an evening paper too. Does not read books except that she has been reading “The Mill on the Floss” for the last two years. She has reached page 36.

Asked how she forms her opinions about things of public interest: ‘Just somehow you listen to what people say and read different papers, and somehow you form your own ideas about things, don’t you.’ ”

43/1/B: Typed notes and reports on Public Opinion 1939-40
Note on M-O Opinion samples, 30.8.39
Memo "A Study of Opinion-Forming in a Limited Area" A Worktown Unit Bolton, 27.2.40 (AH)
Note "A Barometer of Public Opinion"
Notes "Institute of British Opinion", 1.5.40 (TH)
Report "What is Public Opinion?", 19.8.40 (M-O) (pp 4-5 missing)
Wartime Directive No. 3, and typed responses. November 1939

43/1/C: Miscellaneous-Morale. 1940-42
10 Analysis sheets estimating "pessimists" (related to type of job, income, area, age, etc.) Undated
3pp Statistics of overheards; January 40, March 41 (JF); March, April 41 (JA): "Subjects of conversation"
News clipping "Spring Attack by RAF" (February 42)
3 pp Handwritten notes on morale re postwar (August 42)
Typed, British Opinion Interviews, Preston 22.4.40 (AH), handwritten analysis
Handwritten replies to questions on Ministry of Information door to door canvass of public opinion, London 23.8.40
Typed impression of week's morale December 1940, Streatham (LE), Kilburn (CF), (GH)
Handwritten memo, good and bad morale signs, 3.4.41 (KT)
Handwritten notes on press reports on German outrages in occupied countries, 18.8.41
Handwritten revised Index of Morale, monthly averages, 1941-44
Typed appendix, "Home Morale and Public Opinion" , October 1941, Home Intelligence
Typed Interim Reports from the National Institute of Economic and Social Research
Handwritten lists of male and female prejudices
Weekly morale reports, June 41 (DH, JS, GD, NN, LF) Handwritten

43/1/D: Stimulus and Response (Date unknown)
Answers to a word association test. Male and female; undergraduates and adults

43/1/E: Draft article by TH (see File Report 2067) for "The Mood of Britain". 1944

REEL 130


43/2/A: Typed extracts re propaganda and the Ministry of Information. 1939
Typed press extracts, September/October (TH)
Pamphlet The German News Agency and the News, December 1939
Typed extracts from books

43/2/B: Correspondence (TH), 1939-41
Tom Harrisson “[Mass-Observation’s] value is that it tells us exhaustively about the lower professional group (shopkeepers, clerks, civil servants) who probably dominate the country numerically and otherwise.”

43/2/C: Typed report on Morale/Propaganda 1940 (M-O)
Plus handwritten notes by Tom Hopkinson (see File Report 193)

43/2/D: Internal memos and notes 1939-41
Typed memo "Emergency Problems and Mass-Observation" August 1939
Typed article "The Public Needs Information" (TH)
Typed memo "The Five Channels of Publicity" (TH) October 1939
Typed memo sent to Mary Adams (TH) October 1939
Typed notes on propaganda
Typed observations at a meeting "Technique of Propaganda", 12.2.40 (LE)
Handwritten notes on propaganda techniques, August 1941 (JSF)
Typed notes "Some Maxims of Publicity"
Handwritten notes on 'The War of Jenkin's Ear' (16th century historical reference) (TH)

43/2/E: Ministry of Information 1938-41
Typed notes, observations, August-October 1939 (TH)
Handwritten notes (TH)
Typed, Ministry of Information "Plan for Home Publicity Policy" December 1940
Ministry of Information Bulletin "National Scheme for Propaganda by Window Display" August 1940
Typed copy "Themes for Propaganda" from Mary Adams 2.7.41
Ministry of Information leaflet publicising "The War Today" open air meeting, July 1941
Ministry of Information leaflet "British Empire Publicity Campaign", May 1941
Handwritten observations, Ministry of Information speaker, Hyde Park, June 1940 (CP)
Ministry of Information list of pamphlets 29.9.38
Copy of Ministry of Information Defence Notices, 1941
Prosecutions under Defence Regulations, typed details of selected cases, 29.7.40

43/2/F: Various reports and articles on propaganda (non M-O) 1939-44
Reports by:-BBC; Tom Wintringham; The War Office; Douglas Jay; Advertising Service Guild; Porter Sargent (USA); EM Wright; Tom Driberg; OJ Hale; Professor FC Bartlett; Office of the Lord Privy Seal; P Senft
Articles in:-The New Statesman, 2.9.39 "Propaganda or Information"; Agenda, August 1944 "The Problem of Propaganda"

REEL 131


43/3/A: Paper Salvage 1940
Typed observations, Worcester 20.9.40 (JA)
Typed report of first Anti-Waste meeting, 16.1.40 (JA), cutting from The New Statesman 30.12.39
Typed report of Traders Federation, 5.1.40 (JA)
Typed telephone interview with JA Poole, 8.1.40 (JA)
Typed report of Small Traders meeting, London, 18.1.40 (JA). 2 leaflets collected at the meeting

43/3/B: Paper Salvage October-November 1941
Typed and handwritten observations and overheards:-Hendon (JS); Notting Hill Gate (DH); Kilburn (CF); Kensington (JS); Willesden (PG); WC 1 (CM)

43/3/C: Paper Salvage 1942
Handwritten and typed copies of questionnaire
Replies to the questionnaire, (RCC, LB, PJ, EG)
Handwritten analysis of questionnaire (DB)
Analysis sheets and Handwritten indirects (LB, EG, PJ, MS)
Observations and counts of waste paper in rubbish bins, (LB, RCC, PN, EG, PJ)
Handwritten summary of direct observations (DB)
Observations in the Willesden area, 8.4.42 (LB)
Typed observations at Salvage Exhibition, Ford Showrooms 14.5.42 (CM)
Handwritten observations at "Waste Paper goes to War" exhibition, Selfridges, 27.5.42 (LB)
Typed observations "The World's Largest Waste Paper Basket" 31.1.42 (JS), Palmers Green

43/3/D: Bone Salvage June/July 1942
Typed questionnaire, 30.6.42
Handwritten and typed replies to questionnaire, June/July 1942, London (LB, CM, MS, EG)
Interview, examples of posters, handwritten (LB)
Analysis sheets

43/3/E: Leaflets and Press-cuttings 1940-41
Commercial cards asking for rags etc
Anti-waste leaflets produced by London Boroughs
Nation-wide leaflets produced by the Ministry of Supply

43/3/F: Rubber Salvage 1942
Typed report "Note on Rubber Salvage Campaign", 24.4.42

43/3/G: Aluminium Collection/Anti-waste Campaign
6 Observer reports on Aluminium 1940
4 Leaflets about Anti-waste Campaign

REEL 132


43/4/A: Lightship leaflet April 1940
7 copies of the "Lightship leaflet"
Typed critique of the leaflet, Dr RA Macdonald
Handwritten and typed responses of the public to the leaflet, (CP, CF, NM, SS, HP, LE, BW, HN)
Handwritten analysis
Typed report "The Lightship Leaflet" (M-O)

43/4/B: The Silent Column July 1940
Typed supplementary report "The Silent Column and Government Advertising" 29.7.40 (M-O)
Interviews re advertisement, London, typed and handwritten
Typed analysis
Typed draft of test advertisement from newspapers (TH)
Analysis sheets and 2 press-cuttings

43/4/C: The New Magna Carta League Questionnaire October 1940
Re civil liberties, government advertising and the Ministry of Information
Typed manifesto of "The New Magna Carta League" John Tenney, November 1938
Typed and handwritten questionnaire responses (LE, DH, JS)
Analysis sheets

43/4/D: "The Greatest Crusade" Questionnaire October 1940
Typed and handwritten questionnaire responses, London (LE, JS, SS)
Press-cutting of the advert for "The Greatest Crusade"
Handwritten analysis (JSF)
Analysis sheets

43/4/E: Use Less Water Questionnaire, London 1941
Sketch of poster "Save Water"
Carbon of questionnaire
Typed and handwritten responses to questionnaire (MS, VT, DH, CF) summary, general impressions and analysis (VT)
Analysis sheets

43/4/F: Blankets for Russia January 1942
Typed summary (EL)
General impressions (VW, EG, VT, RF, EL)
Notes (TH)
Analysis sheets

43/4/G: Blankets for Russia January 1942
Typed and handwritten responses to questionnaire (CM, BW, VT, VW, MC, EG), Kings Cross, Edgeware Road, Letchworth

43/4/H: Warships Week March 1942
Handwritten and typed observations in Portsmouth (MT), Leamington Spa (RCC) and London (LB, RCC, EG, PN)
Leaflets collected re Warships Week (LB, PN)
Copy of The Evening News Portsmouth and Southsea, 23.3.42
Typed Observations, Malmsbury (CF) 7.2.42

43/4/I: Miscellaneous
Copy prints of Government adverts
Handwritten list of Goverrunent advertising slogans

REEL 133


43/5/A: Typed reports and memos re exhibitions 1941
Typed memo from Mr Carter of RIBA, "Exhibitions, comments and questions", 7.10.41
Typed report "Government Exhibitions" (M-O) 1941
Handwritten memo from (JS), exhibitions, 27.8.41
Ministry of Information Exhibition Programme 1941-42

43/5/B: Morale Exhibitions 1940
Handwritten observations, indirects at Scrap exhibition Charing Cross, 21.8.40 (JS) and Typed observations Navy Exhibition, 27.10.40 (HP)
Handwritten observations "London Pride" Charing Cross, 18.12.40 (JF)
Typed observations, overheards, Messerschmitt on view, Croydon 23.8.40 (HP)

43/5/C: Ministry of Information photograph and poster exhibitions 1941
Handwritten summary of exhibitions, 3.9.41 (VT)
Typed summary of exhibitions, 8.8.41 (CF)
Reports, overheards and follows by full-time observers:
"Fighting the Fire Bomb": handwritten and typed, Worcester August (MS, DH, CF); handwritten, Twickenham August (MS, DH) and leaflet
"New Life to the Land": handwritten, Tottenham, 22.8.41 (JS)
"Free Europe's Forces": typed, Putney August/September (CF, PG) and leaflet
"Women at War": handwritten, East Finchley 29.8.41 (JS) and press-cutting; handwritten, Catford 29.8.41

43/5/D: Practical Exhibitions 1941
Summary of exhibitions, typed and handwritten, September (CF, VT)
Reports, overheards and follows by full-time observers:
Munitions exhibition: Worcester, August (CF, VT, DH); North Finchley, August (VT); Bolton (CF); leaflet and press-cutting
Food Advice Centre: Worcester, Hammersmith, August (VT, MS), leaflets
WVS Salvage exhibition: Putney, August (PG)
National Silage Campaign: Worcester, August (VT) , leaflets
Poison Gas exhibition: Shepherds Bush, Charing Cross, August/ September (MS, NN, DH)

43/5/E: Special Reports by members of the Panel, 1941
Handwritten and typed reports by the panel on Ministry of Information exhibitions in various areas

43/5/F: Propaganda exhibitions 1942-44
Fuel exhibition, typed observations, Charing Cross 23.9.42, (POL)
"Life-lines" handwritten observations, Catford 25.4.42 (EG)
"Paper Goes to War" exhibition. London, handwritten observations 25.1.43 (MS)
"Potato Pete's Fair", typed observations, London 1.1.43 (LB) and leaflets
"The 2 Mrs Britains" typed observations, London 1.9.43 (LB), and leaflet
"Colour in Everyday Life" typed observations, London 23.2.44, (LB)
"War in Wax" exhibition, typed observations, London 26.1.44, (LB) and leaflet
Daily Express War exhibition, typed observations, London, 3.7.44 (GST)

REEL 134


TC 65: 5 boxes

Between July and October 1940, full-time Mass-Observers carried out a study of public behaviour and attitudes in London areas. The results of the study are divided up by weeks over a period of 14 weeks. The range of subjects studied is broad and although many themes are repeated, the subjects also vary from week to week. The main emphasis is on public morale in the weeks immediately before and during the first air raids on London. Observations were carried out in public houses, cinemas, churches, shops, on public transport, at rallies and meetings and in the street.

Overheard reactions to news reports on the radio were gathered; newspaper placard messages were recorded; shop window displays were noted for war references. Mass-Observation was particularly concerned with the effects of air raid warnings and air raids themselves on everyday life: sleeping arrangements, health, food, clothing, work, leisure, "nerves", children; attention was also given to safety provision (shelters) and to the effectiveness of public information (posters, films, leaflets, broadcasts by public figures such as Duff Cooper of the Ministry of Information). Rumours, grievances and "questions uppermost in the public mind" were recorded. Counts of people carrying gas masks gave an indication of whether people expected gas attacks.

A good deal of the study was carried out in Stepney and in Fulham but other London areas covered include Streatham, Notting Hill Gate, Kilburn, and the West End. Mass-Observation personnel involved in this survey included: HP, CF, LE, NM, SS, DH, CP, JS.

The material has been kept together in individual weeks and is arranged in chronological order with reports by the same investigator grouped together. It is therefore possible to find, for example, a survey of attitudes to Gracie Fields divided between files because it was carried out by different investigators. The contents of this Topic Collection overlap with TC 23: Air Raids, TC 43: Propaganda and morale, TC 25: Political attitudes and TC 54: Police, law, and Invasion. Researchers are advised to check handlists to these Topic Collections for complementary material


News and morale; Molotov's speech; radio listening habits; political activity in Stepney: CPGB meeting; Dockers' meeting at Tower Hill; Daily Worker Gala and Fete; Activities in Fulham: cookery demonstrations; ARP unit of neighbours; interviews with Mayor; aliens in East End; Shelters: Anderson/other provision; allotments; ARP lecture; "Pots to Planes" Campaign; Regional Information Office Bulletins; street chalkings; newspaper placards; wayside pulpits; shop counts; effect of war on trade; ARP equipment (gas masks, ear plugs, stirrup pumps, torches and batteries); egg shortages; fashions; shop window displays

Radio listening in pubs (news); newspaper placards; war references in Picture Post advertisements; church services; parties; Chamberlain; allotments in Fulham; Wandsworth Greyhound track; 'Rout the Rumour' Rally, Hendon Park; Royal Navy shop window display; Church Army women and prostitutes; shop windows; shopping observations; bulletin boards; church services; visitors to London landmarks, including Cenotaph

'Rout the Rumour' Rally; clothing and fabrics; news reactions; Molotov's speech; newspaper hoardings; the 'Silent Column' and "Careless Talk" advertisements; aliens; ARP equipment; Portobello Market; Paddington Station; church serices; air raid rumours; War Artists Exhibition at National Gallery; advertising: war themes

REEL 135

BOX 2: LONDON WEEK 2: 3-9.8.40 ... WEEK 3: 10-16.8.40

London Week 2: 3-9.8.40
Shelters in Stepney, use of gardens; air raid warnings; shortages and war effects on trade; political activity: Stepney Tenants Defence League and an interned resident; August Bank Holiday; "Stay Put" leaflet; street accident; newspaper hoardings; press campaign against Duff Cooper; clothes; air raids and nerves; church services

Air raid in Thames Ditton; North Paddington Divisional Labour Party meeting; attitudes to news in general and to Duff Cooper; press posters

Hammersmith Palais, dance; Coombe Hill Golf Club; attitudes to Duff Cooper; air raid shelter provision, Fulham; church service; children's playground; Gracie Fields; Hyde Park speech; internment of aliens and Jewish refugees; availability of goods; barrel organs

Gracie Fields; cinema programme: Royal, Streatham; London Hippodrome Show; Duff Cooper; news reactions; WAAF exhibition at Selfridges

Response to news; Gracie Fields, trade and hire purchase in wartime; air raid warning in Stepney; clothing; European Blockade; drawing unemployment benefit; the Vigilance Committee (redistribution of wealth in Romford); Ministry of Information meeting, Woodford; "Stay Where You Are" leaflet

London Week 3: 10-16.8.40
Radio news reactions; Gracie Fields; European Blockade; air raid on Croydon Aerodrome; air raid alarm in Streatham; Holborn Empire (music hall); film trade; "Miss Grant Goes to the Door" (film about invasion); propaganda; MoI film: "Albert's Savings", "Just William" and various other films: reactions; Mrs Churchill and Duff Cooper at Woodford Rally; WVS and salvage

West End air raids; unemployment; soldiers; military equipment in shop displays; women's fashions; European blockade; reports of air raids

Air raid warnings; "Stay Where You Are" leaflet; Gracie Fields; Duff Cooper at Woodford; dinner dance at Cafe de Paris; Lords cricket match; Fulham tennis courts; newspaper placards; children in Fulham

Letter-writing; Harrods Food Exhibition; Finchley toy shop displays; Gracie Fields; Labour exchanges; "Stay Where You Are" leaflets; blockade of Europe; Duff Cooper at Woodford; shop displays

REEL 136

BOX 3: LONDON WEEK 4: 17-23.8.40 ... WEEK 5, 24-30.8.40

London Week 4: 17-23.8.40
Radio in factories; effect of war on shopkeepers; air raid warnings; Duff Cooper; reactions to news; newspaper placards; aerial activity over South London; meaning of word "Crusade"; political meetings; gas mask count

Baptist Church service; air raids; Duff Cooper's broadcast; Messerschmitt 109 on display; interview with hairdresser on effects of war on trade; morale; grievances; Hyde Park Corner speakers; car accident; reactions to news; gramophone exhibition; scrap metal exhibition; household equipment

Air raids; war talk in working men's cafe; air raid damage, Croydon; air raid casualties and funerals; audience response to films: "Sea Fort", "Let George Do It", Gaumont British News; evacuation of Somaliland; British Israel meeting; United Christian Witness meeting; music halls

Overheards on air raids; Duff Cooper's broadcast; shortages of ARP supplies; shortage of groceries; audience response to "Let George Do It,"; superstition; press posters; the word "Crusade"; pacifism; anti-alien feeling; invasion leaflet; women's organisations; funfairs and amusement arcades; posters in Notting Hill Gate Underground

London Week 5: 24-30.40
Bus accidents; jazz music; "Internment of Aliens" leaflet; air raids and sleep; people in pubs listening to news; the sound of the air raid siren; Duff Cooper and the MoI Social Survey; unexploded bomb, Chelsea

Air raids and warnings; the morning after; health and nerves; Paddington Station crowds; sound of siren; Spitfire Fund; Home Guard; soldiers; pacifists; internment of aliens; Portobello Market; press posters; war toys; Women's Guild of Empire

Work in wartime; WAAF; sleep during raids; social life and air raids; behaviour during warnings; personal and domestic life; pacifists; RAF achievements

Air raids and warnings; internment of aliens; children; Stepney schools; children's concert at National Gallery; Mutual Aid of Good Neighbours Association; press coverage of the war; political meetings; shelters

REEL 137

TC 65, BOX 4: WEEK 6: 31.8.40-6.9.40, WEEK 7: 7-13.9.40

Week 6: 31.8.40-6.9.40
Air raid at Radlett, Herts; Fulham street observations; air raid warning, Streatham; reactions to news; internment of aliens; Duff Cooper on "Children's Hour"; British Paramount News and MoI film and air raid interruptions in Brixton; air raid shelters; newspaper posters in West End; Spitfire Funds; Holloway Labour Exchange; smoking habits; clothes wearing; grievances and rumours; Hampstead Hurricane Fund

“This village of Radlett is not more than twenty miles from London. But the impression that many people have is that London is razed to the ground, ‘crucified’ as a waiter said. One lady living in St John’s won’t risk even going back for a day to her house , another refuses to visit her house in Kensington. Apparently part of this scare has been caused by a lady from Golder’s Green who had produced some very vivid stories.”
Radlett, 2/9/40

Air raid, Belgravia; Internee leaflet; Spanish war posters exhibition; Conscientious Objectors Tribunal; nerves in air raids; Duff Cooper's "Come on Hitler" broadcast; church service and air raid warning; rumours and jokes; Hyde Park; Cycling Club, Slough; classical music; air raids; ARP counter at Woolworths; bedding arrangements in air raids; gas mask counts

Alma Wittlin of United Correspondents; air raids; theatre: "Chu Chin Chow", bomb incident, Stepney Green Station; conscientious objectors; Portobello Market; Victoria Bus Terminus; ARP; press posters; jobs; fashions in Oxford Street; gas masks; smoking habits; rumours

Aerial activity over Stepney; air raids in Stepney: arrangements, shelters, sleeping arrangements, gas mask wearing; General de Gaulle; the services call up, registration pay, Dunkirk, attitudes to officers

Week 7: 7-13.9.940
Air raid; East End evacuation; Isle of Dogs; reactions to news; sleeping and air raids; bomb damage at Buckingham Palace; the weather; grievances and rumours; anti-semitism in Poplar; graffiti; air raid victim's funeral, Stepney; morale in shelters; restaurants and shops in air raids; work; ARP in Kilburn; press posters; lack of safety in shelters; Spanish soldiers and Norway invasion

REEL 138

TC 65, BOX 5: WEEK 8: 14-20.9.40, WEEK 9: 21-27.9.40, WEEK 10: 28.9.40-3.10.40, WEEK 11: 4-10.10.40, WEEK 12: 11-17.10.40, (WEEK 13): missing, WEEK 14: 25-31.10.40

65/5/A: Week 8: 14-20.9.40
Air raids; evacuation; morale; invasion; sleep during raids; attendance at church, places of entertainment and libraries in central London; newspaper articles; leisure activities; brick shelters; Thames Water Buses Emergency Service; National Arbitration Tribunal Panel (Bank Officers Guild v. Barclay's Bank), observations in billiards room and social club

65/5/B: Week 9: 21-27.9.40
East End evacuees; air raid shelters in Underground Stations; shelters and safety; pub count; Chamberlain; internment; observation in parish church; feelings about air raids and death; Brynston Floor 'nippies' on leisure, Lord Haw Haw and air raids and work; schools as rest centres; children's behaviour; Tilbury Docks Shelter; homes damaged by bombs

65/5/C: Week 10: 28.9.40-3.10.40
Air raids; seeking security; evacuation and refugees; sleep in raids; shops damaged by raids; shelters; Southwark Shelter; pubs on routes out of London; posters; household readjustments and special arrangements in air raids

65/5/D: Week 11: 4-10.10.40
Tube shelters; graffiti in telephone kiosks; sleep; 'Bomb Berlin' poster; reception of refugees from London in Windsor; Rest Centre and evacuation office; government press advertising; homelessness; anti-semitism; Rest Centre in London; organisation of ARP wardens; patrolling during blitz; non-evacuated mothers and children; residents/evacuees relations

65/5/E: Week 12: 11-17.10.40
Evacuation; soldiers; effect of weather on air raids; General de Gaulle; Princess Elizabeth's speech; Ministry of Information; plans for after the war: savings, time-keeping, sex life, attitudes to government; estate agents on rent decreases and evacuation

(Week 13: missing)
65/5/F: Week 14: 25-31.10.40
Lyons Teashop in air raid; communal basement in Kilburn during raid




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