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BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL PAPERS, 1780-1939
Selected Titles from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
and the British Library Newspaper Library, Colindale
Series One: International Trade

Part 1: The Anglo-Japanese Gazette, 1902-1909, and 10 other titles

By conducting a rigorous search of the card catalogues of the British Library Newspaper Library in London and an analysis of relevant sources at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, it has been possible to unearth a list of thousands of pertinent journals, periodicals and newspaper sources.

Titles from this investigation of the card catalogues have been selected for micropublication by Clive Trebilcock, who specialises in international economic and business history, 19th and 20th century developments in science and technology, and the 20th century economy of Japan and the Far East. Series One concentrates upon International Trade.

Part 1 comprises the following 11 titles:

The African Times and Orient Review, 1912-1914, 1917-1918
Edited by Duse Mohamed and published monthly this journal covers Politics, Literature, Art and Commerce. A striking illustrative design by Walter Crane depicting Concordia dominates the cover page.

Volume 1 No 1, London, July 1912 proclaims that "the recent Universal Races Congress, convened in the Metropolis of the Anglo-Saxon world, clearly demonstrated that there was ample need for a Pan-Oriental Pan-African journal in the seat of the British Empire". This first issue contains articles on the Negro Conference at the Tuskegee Institute, the report of the First Universal Races Congress, and sections on Morocco, East Africa, Uganda, Oriental Mails and Shipping. Other early issues include much material on Japan, Black Studies, Racial Issues and the Need for Inter-racial Unity, Africa, Trade and Commercial Interests. Much emphasis is placed upon promoting the common fundamental interests of white and coloured peoples. Above all, it is a newspaper produced by coloured people reflecting their opinions and stating their aims and desires.

The financial and commercial section provides shipping information, market prices and an African produce report.

From 24 March 1914 a new series starts and The African Times and Orient Review appears on a weekly basis. It contains comments and opinions from correspondents in all parts of the world - Turkey, Albania, Asia Minor, Egypt, British East Africa, Uganda, Zanzibar, the South African Dominion, Nigeria, Togoland, the Gold Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Gambia, the West Indies, the United States, Brazil, Panama, British Guiana, Haiti, Ceylon, India, the Malay States, China and Japan.

Unfortunately no issues were published in 1915 and 1916. The journal then reverts to a monthly publication in 1917.

The African Colonizer, 1840-1841
Very concerned with trade, European Colonial power blocks and the need for a greater dissemination of information, the first issue sets out the aims of this journal as "a source of information useful alike to emigrants, scholars and politicians, merchants and philanthropists..." The introductory piece states "This journal is published, not only under a strong impression that the affairs of Africa, generally, are of deep concern to Great Britain, but, under a still stronger conviction that some of the most dearly cherished British interests will incur the greatest hazard, if steps be not speedily taken to enlighten and rouse the public respecting British Africa in particular".

Subjects covered include the West African Gum Trade, the Slave Trade, Fine Woolled Sheep, Emigration, the Caffre War of 1834-5, the Colonial Office System, South Africa, the Aborigines Protection Society, Sierra Leone and regular shipping intelligence in each issue.

There is much criticism of British Colonial Government and frequent demands for improved and more civilized conditions. The introductory piece in the first issue contains the following assessment: "In short the British possessions in Africa, form an important part of that continent; and whilst their prosperity is dependent, in many respects, upon the general progress of the whole continent, that prosperity is likely to be more lasting and blessed, if the natives of the less favoured regions derive from us support and assistance to work out their own freedom and civilization".

The African Colonizer starts as a weekly publication and then becomes fortnightly appearing every alternate Saturday.

The Anglo-Japanese Gazette, 1902-1909
Founded as a monthly review devoted to the commercial and social interests of the British Empire and Japan, this contains excellent material on trade with Japan and the Far East.

Major subjects featured include the Hong Kong, Shanghai and Mitsui Banking Corporations, the National Industrial Exhibition of Japan, Shipbuilding in Japan, Railways in the Far East, Commercial Education in Japan, Iron and Steel Manufacturing, the New Steamship Service between Japan and Australia, Japanese Economic Penetration of Asia, Textiles, Coal and New Industrial Power Plants.

Volume 1 No 1 asserts: "The radical revolutions in habits and government, the change in manners, the advancement in ideas, which have taken place in Japan during the short space of time which has lapsed since 1855 - the year of Commodore Perry’s visit - are too well known to be dealt with here on the present occasion, except it be in the briefest possible way".

Prior to 1855, Japan, like many of her neighbours, had since the age of mythology, religiously kept her ports closed to the entire world. From that year, however, as a result of the treaty entered into with the United States, she has not only willingly and gladly thrown her gate open to all without prejudice as to nationality, but has always welcomed the stranger from every land for the knowledge he has brought. The result of this interchange of ideas is on every hand apparent. Taking statistics issued by the Financial Department it will be seen the foreign trade of Japan, between the years 1869 and 1900, shows an increase of no less than 200 per cent. Again, in our Universities, in large commercial homes, or wherever one turns, one finds her best blood studying Western ideas".

This tremendous interchange of ideas in the first decade of the twentieth century is well documented in the issues of The Anglo-Japanese Gazette.

The Eastern World. A Weekly Journal for Law, Commerce, Politics, Literature, and Useful Information, 1899-1908
This provides a wealth of information for Japan and the Far East. Published in Yokohama, Japan it contains regular articles on the Commercial Code of Japan, the Japanese Diet, Patents and Trademarks, Banking, Joint Stock Companies, Trade and Industry. There are also interesting pieces on the Great Fire of Yokohama, the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5, and the Political Situation in Japan. Frequently featured are comparisons with the Western Powers, particularly technological innovation, railways and industry in Germany. There are sections of Economic and Trade Statistics and Literary Criticism and Reviews. Each issue contains shipping news and listings of stocks and shares.

The Pacific Mail, 1873-1876
The declared raison d’tre of this journal is expressed as follows: "The Pacific States of South America have no representative in the English press. This seems incredible, but the fact is as we have stated… To supply this much felt want is the mission of ‘The Pacific Mail’. When we consider the importance of our commercial and financial relations with South America, nothing is more remarkable - or perhaps less excusable - than the profound ignorance which commonly prevails with regard to that vast Continent". It published regular intelligence from the West Coast of South America and documented all matters affecting the interests of Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador and Venezuala. It is all about trade and steam packets plying their way from Southampton and Liverpool. Subjects covered include the treatment of British seamen, Guano exports from Peru, South American Credit, Emigration, Missionary activity, New Railroads, the American Commercial Crisis, Peruvian Debt, Monetary and Commercial Reports, the River Plate and the Monroe Doctrine. There is also much material on Argentine, Brazil and Uruguay.

South Australian Chronicle and Colonial Record, 1852-1853
There is much material on the South Australian Legislative Council, Exports and Imports, the Darien Ship Canal, the South Australian Mint, Shipping and Navigation, the Committee of Australian Colonists, Information on Emigrants, the Burmese War, Ministerial Explanations and the New Passenger Act.

The first issue boldly pronounces: "A period more important than the present, more critical, more hopeful, never occurred in the history of South Australia. Established in a career of undoubted vigour and prosperity, the opening of fields of mineral wealth on her borders creates anxieties, but yet more hopes. The commencement of steam communication direct brings the colony within half her distance from the mother country; and it is at such a time that the steady East winds keep from us the mass of colonial intelligence which is floating on the seas near our coasts, while a slight puff or two from the Westward tantalizes us with snatches disconnected and incomplete".

Each issue starts with a Summary of the latest Colonial News.

Colonial Enterprise. Review of the Mines, Manufactures and Industries of Greater Britain, 1894-1899
With detailed reports, articles and statistical analysis, this journal covers Africa, Australia, British Columbia, Canada, Western Australia and other British Colonial interests. It features a four page weekly Mining Share List compiled by Samuel James, Colonial Banking and Finance, Reports on Mining Companies and a strong emphasis on Diamonds, Gold, Coal, Manufacturing Industry, Electrical Engineering and New Technology.

Early issues include articles on the need for monetary reform, the mineral resources of Portugal, the mineral wealth of British Columbia, the World’s Silver and Gold Production, successful mining in Victoria, Indian Diamonds, British Trade in South Africa and Bimetallism: its practicability and desirability. There is a report on the Inter-Colonial Conference at Ottawa, 1894 and analysis of Witwatersrand Gold Production.

The Colonial Gazette, 1838-1847
Promising "Ships, Colonies and Commerce!" and published in connection with the Colonial Society this newspaper provides shipping intelligence, market information and reviews. Such subjects as Negro Emancipation, Trust Companies, the Aborigine Protection Society and criticism of Colonial Governments are all to the fore. Coverage includes Canada, Newfoundland, the West Indies, Malta, the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, South Australia, the East Indies, China and the United States with regular sections by correspondents reporting from these areas.

Issue No 61 for January 22, 1840 has articles on Downing Street Legislation for the Colonies, Ordinary Objections to Responsible Government, news from Correspondents around the World and Colonial Markets.

There is scathing criticism of the British Government. "As for the Cabinet, what a delusion it is to imagine that any set of men, whose whole thoughts are engaged with the politics of the Mother-country, should trouble themselves with Colonial questions when they can possibly help it! Canada would not have been even named in the last Royal Speech if there had not been a rebellion in the case. No Minister ever thinks of calling the attention of Parliament to a Colonial question…".

The next issue has a report about the New Colonization Commission and an analysis of Lord John Russell’s despatches on "Responsible Government". The editorial column on page 74 boasts "scarcely a colony of the British empire but contributes to enrich our columns this week. From North America, the West Indies, South Africa, New South Wales, Van Diemen’s land, South Australia and the Swan River, we report intelligence of varied interest. The use of a journal in the Metropolis of England devoted to the affairs of the Colonies in general, never received a stronger demonstration, for with all this teeming abundance of matter, a great deal of it really important, all other newspapers are nearly as destitute of Colonial features as if no ship had touched our shores".

The Anglo-Russian, 1897-1914
Edited by Jaakoff Prelooker this monthly newspaper covers a crucial period of Russian history. "With its aim I entirely sympathise" writes Jerome K Jerome in a letter published in the first issue of The Anglo-Russian. Its stated aims are set out as follows: To seek to promote more friendly relations and increased commercial intercourse between England and Russia; to throw light upon internal affairs and events in Russia and their bearing on international policy; advocating Civil and Religious Liberty and Universal Peace and Brotherhood; to voice Russian public opinion that is condemned to silence inside the country itself; to support the claims of the people for representative institutions, especially for a Free Press and Free Platform; pointing out the dangers of all ill-calculated attempts at violent revolution; encouraging the study of the English language by Russians, and vice-versa; to stimulate the popularisation of English Literature in Russia, and vice-versa; and to strive in general to assist the realisation of purer and higher ideals.

"Our chief aim is to endeavour to remove those misunderstandings which at present divide two such great nations as the English and the Russians into antagonistic camps, suspicious of one another, to the detriment of their mutual interests, and the interests of the world at large. We are firmly convinced that there is no real cause for antagonism - that the natural conditions under which both nations exist and labour are such as to make them natural allies. Each could supply the wants of the other - Russia with the inexhaustible wealth of her natural resources, England with the abundance of her industries and manufactures".

Prominent subjects featured are Anglo-Russian Commerce, Russian Societies in England, Financial Policy in Russia, Russian Music, Stundist Documents, Famine Distress in Russia, Agriculture, English and French trade competition in Russia, Russian Women at Work, trade with Finland and Religious issues.

Free Russia, 1890-1915
This journal is the organ of the English "Society of Friends of Russian Freedom". The society included Arthur H Dyke Acland MP, the Rt Hon J G Shaw Lefevre MP, Joshua Rowntree MP, Edward R Pease and Dr Robert Spence Watson amongst its members. There is much discussion of the contributions of George Kennan, a leading British political advocate of the Russian cause. Other major subjects included in this journal are the Yakutsk Massacre, University Disturbances, the Jews in Russia, Russian Internal Policy, Count Tolstoi’s Reforms, Russian Anarchists, the Movement in America to Support Russian Freedom, Events in Finland and the Revolution of 1905.

The first issue claims "the publication in English in the Capital of the English speaking race of a paper, intended to forward the cause of freedom in Russia, is a new departure in journalism". It continues "As Russians, we cannot regard the ill-treatment of political offenders by the Russian Government as our greatest grievance. The wrongs inflicted upon the millions of peasantry, the stifling of the spiritual life of our whole gifted race, the corruption of public morals, created by wanton despotism, - these are the great crimes of our Government against Russia, urging her faithful children to rebellion".

The Index: A Weekly Journal of Politics, Literature and News; Devoted to the Exposition of the Mutual Interests, Political and Commercial, of Great Britain and the Confederate States of America, 1862-1865
With much material on the American Civil War and trade between the ports of Britain and America, this journal contains the Latest Direct Intelligence from the South, Private Letters from the Southern and Northern States, Foreign Correspondence, information on the Cotton and Dry Goods Market and other commercial reports. Examples include Messages of President Davis on Negotiations with the Washington Government, Cotton Prospects and numerous letters from Liverpool and Manchester, "Our Confederate Flag on the Sea" (the Sumter) and pieces from Foreign Correspondents in Berlin, Brussels, Havana, Madrid, Paris and many major commercial centres. There are leaders on American Indians, the Negroes, the Abolition Edict, "Continued insults to the British Flag", the Seizure of Bermuda, the Cotton Famine, Cotton Substitutes, Cotton Supply and India, the cause of the Disruption of the Union, Finances - Federal and Confederate, Factory Operatives, Factory Folk and the Tobacco Market. Gladstone’s Views on America, the Louisiana Purchase, Mexican Interventions, Poor Laws, Southern Securities, Slave Power, the Slave Trade, the Wheat Trade, Prices current, Statistics, Southern Railroads, Stonewall Jackson and the various Military Campaigns are also well documented.

The first issue describes the opening of the International Exhibition at Kensington, the Lancashire Cotton Famine and Letters include one from General G T Beauregard to the Planters of the Mississippi Valley.

All libraries with an interest in Economic History, Empire Studies or World History should consider these titles.



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