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CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY ARCHIVE
Section I: East Asia Missions

Part 4: Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, 1880-1957

REEL 64
Catalogue to the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, 1872-1957

CEZ G A1-A5
Administration
1921-1949

REEL 65

CEZ G AA1-AA4, AC1
Advertising and Publicity 1923-1950
Correspondence 1922-1943

REEL 66

CEZ G AC2, AP1-AP2
Correspondence and Policy 1888-1957
CEZ G AS1
Staff 1940

REEL 67

CEZ G AS2-AS5
Staff
1922-1950

REEL 68

CEZ G C1/1-C1/2
General Committee Minutes
1880-1890

REEL 69

CEZ G C1/3-C1/4
General Committee Minutes
1890-1898

REEL 70

CEZ G C1/5-C1/6
General Committee Minutes
1898-1919

REEL 71

CEZ G C1/7-C1/8
General Committee Minutes
1919-1933

REEL 72

CEZ G C1/9
General Committee Minutes
1933-1940

REEL 73

CEZ G C1/10-C1/11
General Committee Minutes
1940-1957

REEL 74

CEZ G C2/1-C2/2
Executive Committee Minutes
1898-1906

REEL 75

CEZ G C2/3-C2/4
Executive Committee Minutes
1907-1914

REEL 76

CEZ G C2/5-C2/6
Executive Committee Minutes
1914-1921

REEL 77

CEZ G C2/7-C2/8
Executive Committee Minutes
1921-1927

REEL 78

CEZ G C2/9-C2/10
Executive Commitee Minutes
1927-1932

REEL 79

CEZ G C2/11-C2/12
Executive Commitee Minutes
1933-1938

REEL 80

CEZ G C2/13-C2/14
Executive Commitee Minutes
1938-1956

REEL 81

CEZ G C2/15
Executive Commitee Minutes
1956-1957

CEZ G C3/1
Sub-commitee Minutes
1908-1909
1920-1925

REEL 82

CEZ G C3/2-C3/5
Sub-committee Minutes
1909-1957

REEL 83

CEZ G C4/1-C4/4
Publications Committee
1884-1920

REEL 84

CEZ G C4/5-C4/8
Publications Committee
1920-1951


Catalogue of the papers of the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society 1872-1968

Introduction

The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society was founded in 1880 when it separated from the interdenominational Indian Female Normal School Society (founded 1852). Its main aim was to evangelise the women of India by means of normal schools [teacher training colleges], zenana visiting, medical missions, Hindu and Muslim female schools and the employment of Bible women. The Society was to work in close co-operation with the Church Missionary Society. In 1957 it amalgamated with CMS. A board of trustees continued to administer the transfer of property and trust funds until 1968.

CEZMS office organisation was very similar to that of CMS. The Society was run by committees, each Secretary of the main committees being head of a department at headquarters. The Clerical Secretary served the General and Executive Committees which were responsible overall for Society affairs. He was also in charge of the Editorial department. The Lay (or Financial) Secretary was responsible for the raising of funds and all financial and property matters. The Foreign and Candidates Secretary corresponded with the missionaries and churches overseas and was responsible for recruiting and training candidates. In 1952 her title was changed to Foreign and Home Secretary and she additionally took responsibility for the House (Home and Depot) Committee (previously served by the Lady Superintendent of the Home) as well as the Home Organisation Committee.

The first headquarters of the Society was at 38 Tavistock Road, Westbourne Park, London. It served both as office and residential base for missionaries on leave, prospective candidates, deputation workers, members of the annual Spring conference and other visitors. In 1881 the office moved to 9 Salisbury Square, while the Central Home and Depot for work moved in 1883 to 5, Maresfield Gardens, Fitzjohn Avenue, Hampstead. The office subsequently moved to 27 Chancery Lane (1898-1929); 19 and 21 Southamption Street [renamed Conway Street 1938] (1929-1952) and Cromwell House, Highgate (1952-57). The Home was at Manor House, 20 Leigh Road, Highbury (1888-1938), The Lodge, Gibson’s Hill, Streatham [sold to Croydon corporation] (1938-51) and Cromwell House (1952-57).

The overseas work of the Society started in India but spread to China in 1884, Japan in 1886 and Ceylon in 1889. Work in China ended in 1950 when the missionaries had to leave, but from 1952 they worked amongst the Chinese in Malaya. Work in Japan had to be given up in 1892 and it was handed over to CMS. Whent the Female Education Society (founded 1843) closed down in 1900 CEZMS took over their work in Singapore, though the Singapore School Sub-committee (secretary 1904-12 Lady Gage Brown, 1913 Miss E Gage Brown) was not fully integrated until 1913.

Details of mission stations will be found in the introduction to the Foreign and Candidates’ Secretary’s department (p.?)

CEZMS missionaries began by teaching in zenanas and day-schools. The chief stations were Trivandrum, Palamcotta (Sarah Tucker College), Masulipatam and Madras in South India, Meerut (handed over to CMS 1893), Jabalpur, Calcutta (Normal School) and Amritsar (Alexandra School) in North India.

Medical work was of great importance. The Society had taken over the work at Amritsar (St. Catherine’s hospital) and other hospitals and dispensaries were established in Bhagalpur, Srinagar, Peshawar (Connaught hospital), Batala, Narowal and Tarn Taran.

Work was also done by village missions, a central village from which evangelists visited dozens of villages grouped around the centre. The chief places for these in the 1880s were Jandiala, Ajnala, Narowal, Tarn Taran and Nadiya.

Industrial work was begun in 1883, with a class at Amritsar. The Indian Widows’ Union was set up in England in 1889. English widows raised financial support for Indian widows’ industries. It was active from 1889 to 1946/7 and its reports are entered in the Annual Reports [G/E L 1/1].

There was also work amongst the deaf and dumb in India (at Palamcotta from 1900, Mylapore from 1914) and amongst the blind in China at Kucheng, and Nantai, Foochow.

Note on CEZMS archives and publications

The archives have suffered badly from numerous changes of headquarters and also from severe flood damage during the Second World War. The correspondence with the missions overseas survives only from 1921. This loss can be partly compensated by the use of the printed reports, periodicals and other publications. Researchers should also refer to the CMS archives as the two Societies worked very closely together, even sharing a Candidates Committee. For work in the British Isles the periodical ‘India’s Women’ together with the Annual Reports provide a rich and vital source of information.

The publications, other than the Annual Reports and ‘India’s Women’ are very largely incomplete. The British Library holds some copies missing from the various series surviving in the archives. These include:-
Homes of the East 1904-1909
Review of the Year 1927/28, 1938-1951
Daybreak 1886-87, 1890-April 1892, 1894-1905, 1910-July 1914
Torchbearer Oct 1911-1914

The archives have been listed in four sections, corresponding to the departments of the four Secretaries in charge in 1952 when the Society gave up its separate office and moved its headquarters and Home to Cromwell House. At that time the Publication Committee and House (Home and Depot) Committee were wound up. By 1953 the Foreign and Home departments were combined under Miss Winifred Chapman.

CEZMS Secretaries

Secretary

1880-1891
James Stuart
1880-1897
Col G R Stewart Black
1894-1897
Major General C G Robinson

Clerical Secretary [General Secretary]

1889-1907
Rev George Tonge
1908-1912
Rev C H Stileman
1912-1916
Rev H P Napier-Clavering
1917-1919
Rev C E Paterson
1919-1929
Rev Douglas H G Sargent
1930-1939
Rev A J Mortimore
1940-1944
Rev J P Heaton
1945-1957
Rev J Bates

Lay Secretary [Financial Secretary]

1880-1891
Mrs James Stuart
1891-1897
Col R F Lowis
1898-1901
R G Macdonald
1902-1904
J B Braddon
1905-1919
H L Hebbert
1919
R Swinburne
1920-1924
Colonel A H van Straubenzee
1925-1927
Major J A McQueen
1928-1946
Major C J Everard
1947-1957
Colonel C D O Pugh

Central Association Secretary [Home Organisation Committee]

1881-1909
Miss Mulvany
1910-1913
Miss L M H Nash
1914-1919
Miss E M Plumptre
1920-1935
Miss M E Pell
1936-1949
Miss R B Rhodes
1950-1951
Miss Enock
1952
[joined with Foreign and Candidates Secretary]

Editor & Superintendent of Publication Department [Secretary to Publication Committee]

1895-1898
Miss Dona Woolmer
1898-1901
Miss Irene H Barnes
1902-1905
Miss J S Jameson
1906-1910
Miss M Cave
1911-1912
Miss C H Tod
1913-1915
Miss M C Outram
1916-1919
Miss Lilian Seeley
1920-1924
Mrs Hanson
1925
Miss L G Dowdall
1926-1949
Miss A M Robinson
1950-1952
Miss M D Morris
1952
Department closed

Secretary to Candidates Committee

1880-1901
Mrs Sandys
1902-1905
Mrs Tonge
1906-1907
Miss L S Bayley

Foreign and Candidates Secretary [Foreign and Home Secretary 1952]

1908-1915
Miss A M L Smith
1916-1923
Miss M I Millner
1924-1937
Miss C Priscilla-Smith
1938-1957
Miss Winifred M Chapman

House (Home & Depot) Committee

Secretary: Lady Superintendent
1882-1891
Miss Cockle
1892-1897
Miss Turner
1898-1916
Mrs Bardsley
1917-1919
Miss E S Tiley
1919
Miss E Wilson
1920-1923
Miss C Priscilla Smith
1924-1952
Miss A E West
1952
Committee closed

The Clerical Secretary

The Clerical Secretary was secretary to the General and Executive Committees. He conducted all correspondence concerning policy and principles and amongst his colleagues he was considered ‘primus inter pares’. He supervised the Editorial department. He was ultimately responsible for the Annual meetings of the Society, including the Farewell to Missionaries. He also arranged the Annual Sermon, the general Review of the Year and gave the farewell charge to outgoing missionaries. He interviewed all missionaries and headquarters staff.


CLERICAL SECRETARY

A
Administration

A 1
Girls’ Auxiliary 1942-1944

A 2
Hibernian Auxiliary includes report [printed] 1948 1921-1923
1931,
1934-1935,
1938-1942,
1945-1949

A 3
Episcopal patrons
1945, 1947

A 4
Miscellaneous correspondence: includes:- memorandum and proposal for co-operative
1921-1945
production of India films 1924-5
The Outpost (magazine of diocese of Victoria Hong Kong) July 1924
list of organisations invited and correspondence re Peace with China Conference 1927
correspondence re ordination of women 1927-28, 1931-32
correspondence re child marriage in India 1929 and
Bradshaw Memorial Fund 1930
correspondence re training at Kennaway Hall 1934
correspondence re Miss Gertrude Whiting, American, with long letter re possibility of supplying from the
women’s industrial workgroups in the India missions, lace articles to her specifications for her retail trade 1934
letter from Frank C Laubach re literacy work 1934
correspondence with BBC 1938-39

A 5
CEZMS and the Unified Statement [need for more support of all missionary societies]: extracts from ‘India’s Women’ with details of work in each area and proposed 10% reductions
1933-1934

AA
Advertising and publicity

AA 1
Publications: correspondence on all aspects including comments on unsuitable publications, orders to printers, readers’ comments etc.
including correspondence with Rev W P Hares, Gojra, re his pamphlets published to counter Roman Catholic pamphlet 1938-39
1923-1924, 1927, 1929-1930, 1938-1944

AA 2
Advertising: correspondence re reduction in advertising
1932

AA 3
Films: correspondence with and re Missionary
1931-1935
Film Committee (T H Baxter) [seven missionary societies] 1931-32, 1935; list of 16mm films [no date]

AA 4
Exhibitions
1938-1939,
1947-1948,

1950

AC
Correspondence

AC 1
Correspondence with committee members: includes:-The Indus (The Indian Students’ Union and Hostel magazine) 1938-1943
Vol II No 1 May 1922 (including two articles re trial of Mahatma Gandhi)
Correspondence re Miss Bradshaw Memorial Fund 1930
Correspondence re Miss Leech (born 1899: Missionary at Baranagar) and her views on baptism [became Baptist] 1935 1922-1924, 1929-1931, 1934-1935

AC 2
Extracts from missionaries’ letters prepared for Executive Committee
1951-1957

AP
Policy

AP 1
Proposals to amalgamate CEZMS with CMS: memoranda, correspondence and papers
1888, 1895, 1919, 1926, 1939, 1940, 1944, 1951, 1957

AP 2
Printed papers concerning separation of CEZMS from IFNS and miscellaneous printed
papers [bundle labelled ‘Papers re founding of CEZMS 1880’] includes Indian Female Normal
1875-1880
School and Instruction Society leaflet 1875, and pamphlet ‘The Women of India and Zenana and
Educational Work among them’ by Mrs Weitbrecht 1878; reports of the local committee of the Calcutta Female Normal School and Church of England Zenana Mission Society 1880-1881

AS
Staff

AS 1
Clerical Secretary: appointment of Rev P J Heaton following resignation of Rev A J Mortimore
1940

AS 2
Clerical District Secretaries [Clerical Organising Secretaries 1922-23]: [England divided into four districts:- Metropolitan and South-East, South-West, Midland and North]: includes reports of deputation work and comments on state of support in dioceses and individual parishes also:- report of four South Wales diocese [printed] 1925/26
1922-1926, 1931-1945

AS 3
Organising Secretaries (women): in charge of individual dioceses: includes re alleged modernism in CMS in 1922
1922, 1926-1927, 1935-1940, 1945-1946, 1950

AS 4
Office staff: includes obituary notice for Edgar James Pritchard, Head Clerk for nearly 45 years, 1934 1925, 1934, 1945

AS 5
Staff at The Lodge, Streatham (Home and depot):includes re difficulties between superintendent
Miss G West and resident Mrs Macdonald
1942-1945

C
Committee work

C 1
General committee: met approximately once a month: index of names and subjects: publications presented to committee 1880-92; from 1898 (vol 5) includes instructions to missionaries: minutes:
/1 14 April 1880 - 5 March 1884
/2 2 April 1881 - 21 July 1890
inserted printed agenda papers include precis of letters from mission secretaries [CMS men] and a few others
/3 1 October 1890 - 5 December 1894
/4 2 January 1895 - 27 April 1898
/5 18 May 1898 - 29 April 1908
/6 20 May 1908 - 19 February 1919
/7 21 March 1919 - 18 November 1925
p. 156 regulations affecting missionaries [printed] 1921
/8 17 February 1926 - 26 September 1933
/9 15 November 1933 - 24 April 1940
p.231/4 memorandum and articles of association of CEZ Trust Association Ltd. [printed] 1936
/10 15 May 1940 - 16 September 1953
/11 4 November 1953 - 26 September 1957 [with minutes of trustees re transfer of property and
trust funds October 1957-1961, 1963-64, 1967-68] (11 vols.)
1880-1968

C 2
Executive Committee: appointed by General Committee 18 May 1898: includes printed agenda and precis of correspondence; printed papers re annual meetings, farewell meetings, finance returns etc.: minutes:
/1 1 June 1898 - 30 April 1902: includes:
p. 164 instructions to missionaries 1899
p. 291 prospectus: The Clarence Memorial
School Kandy [printed] 1901
/2 4 June 1902 - 7 November 1906: includes:-
p. 69 regulations for candidates 1903
p.73 report of sub-committee to consider working of Publications and Editorial Department [printed] 1903
p.151/2 CEZMS Training Home Egmore, Madras:
p.179/80 CEZMS conference Madras: proceedings 1904
p.237/8 CEZMS conference Amritsar: proceedings 1904
p.257/8 CEZMS Standing Committee proceedings at Calcutta 1904
p.301/2 ditto: 16 February 1905
p.387/8 conference proceedings Madras 1906
/3 2 January 1907 - 28 September 1910: includes:-
p.313/4 rules and regulations: Daybreak Workers Union 1909
/4 2 November 1910 - 1 July 1914: includes:- 89/90 CEZMS Bengal Conference: minutes 1911
/5 23 September 1914 - 2 January 1918: includes:-
p.97/8 CEZMS Bengal Conference: minutes 1915
p.137/8 circular letter to superintending missionaries re health matters [1915]
p.221/22 CEZMS Bengal Conference: minutes 1916
/6 6 February 1918 - 6 April 1921: includes:-
p.37/8 CEZMS Bengal Conference: minutes 1918
p.139/40 Proposal for Union of the CEZMS with CMS 1919
p.233/4 scheme for re-organisation at Home 1920 [Organising Secretaries]
p.361/2 Conference on village education in India
November 1920 [inter-mission conference]
p.391 Statement on Comity among Missions [Conference of British Missionary
Societies] 1920
/7 27 April 1921 - 2 April 1924: includes:-
p.61/2 minutes of joint meeting of Fukien and Women’s Conference: July and August 1921
p.81/2 CMS and CEZMS: minutes of third meeting of Women’s Joint Conference October 1921
p.183/86 CEZMS general conference September 1922
p.349/50 letter to Bible Union of China 1924
p.365/66 memorandum on selection of candidates 1924
p.373/4 memo re Mrs Gunasekara 1924
p.385/6 CMS and CEZMS Ladies Joint Conference, Lahore, minutes 1924
/8 7 May 1924 - 6 April 1927: inserted papers include minutes of Kistna Administrative Committee: includes:-
p.5/6 Telegu mission: proposed constitution for new local governing body 1924
p.9/10 proposed constitution: Kistna Administrative Committee 1924
p.67/8 clerical district secretaries’ returns 1924 Ap

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